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Inflation preview

With impact of Food and beverages, IPCA-15 is 0.21% in April

Section: Economic Statistics | Breno Siqueira

April 26, 2024 09h00 AM | Last Updated: April 26, 2024 11h53 AM

IPCA-15 decelerates for the second month in a row, though rises in groups of Food and beverages and Health and personal care influenced the index Picture: IBGE Archive

Inflation preview stayed at 0.21% in April, 0.15 percentage points (pp) lower than that of March, when it had changed 0.36%. The result was influenced by the group of Food and beverages, with a rise of 0.61% and an impact of 0.13 pp on the overall index.  The group of Transportation was the only one that dropped (-0.49%), with an impact of -0.10 pp on the overall index. The Extended National Consumer Price Index-15 (IPCA-15) was released today (26) by the IBGE.

In the last 12 months, the IPCA-15 changed 3.77%, below the rate of 4.14% recorded in the immediately previous 12 months.  In April 2023, the IPCA-15 had been 0.57%.


Of the nine groups of products and services surveyed, only Transportation (-0.49%) dropped in April. The biggest impact (0.13 pp) came from Food and beverages (0.61%), followed by Health and personal care (0.78% and 0.10 pp). The other groups stood between the rate of 0.03% of Household articles and the 0.41% of Wearing apparel.

In the group of Food and beverages (0.61%), food at home rose 0.74% in April. The rises in tomatoes (17.87%), garlic (11.60%), onions (11.31%), fruits (2.59%) and long-life milk (1.96%) contributed to this result. On the dropping side, potatoes (-8.72%) and meat (-1.43%) stood out. Food away from home (0.25%) decelerated in relation to March (0.59%), due to a less intense rise in meals (from 0.76% in March to 0.07% in April). Snacks (0.47%) registered a higher change than in the previous month (0.19%).

In Health and personal care (0.78%), the biggest contribution (0.05 pp) came from pharmaceuticals (1.36%), after the adjustment of up to 4.50% in the prices of medicines on March 31. In addition, health insurance (0.77%) still encompasses monthly shares of price adjustments for new and existing contracts for the cycle between 2023 and 2024.

In the group of Housing (0.07%), the rise in water and sewage fees (0.05%) was influenced by the adjustment of 1.95% in Goiânia (0.90%) on April 1st. Residential electricity (-0.07%) was adjusted by 3.84% on March 15 and by 2.76% on March 19, applied to two concessionaires surveyed in Rio de Janeiro (2.34%).

In the group of Transportation (-0.49%), airfare dropped (-12.20% and -0.09 pp). As for fuels (-0.03%), only ethanol rose (0.87%), whereas vehicular gas (-0.97%), diesel fuel (-0.43%) and gasoline (-0.11%) recorded a drop in their prices.

Also in Transportation, the change in urban bus (-0.05%) was influenced by the unification of fares in Recife (-0.73%) on March 3. In intercity bus (0.44%), price adjustments were effected in Rio de Janeiro (2.83%) on February 24. The rise in the sub-item subway (0.39%) was due to the adjustment of 8.69% in the fare on April 12 in Rio de Janeiro (1.16%).

Recife has the highest change and Fortaleza, the lowest one

As for the regional indexes, nine areas rose in April. The biggest change was recorded in Recife (0.57%), due to the rises in tomatoes (27.79%) and gasoline (5.13%). The lowest result was that of Fortaleza (-0.02%), which recorded a drop in the prices of airfare (-17.10%) and gasoline (-4.80%).

More about the survey

To calculate the IPCA-15, the methodology is the same as the one used for the IPCA; the difference lies in the period of price collection and in the geographic coverage.  In order to estimate the IPCA-15, prices were collected from March 15 to April 15, 2024 (reference) and compared with those in effect from February 16 to March 14, 2024 (base).

The indicator refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 40 minimum wages and it encompasses the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife, São Paulo, Belém, Fortaleza, Salvador, Curitiba, besides Brasília and the municipality of Goiânia. Please take a look at the complete results on Sidra. The next release of the IPCA-15, relative to May, will be on May 28.

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