Inflation preview stays at 0.60% in April pressed by rise in fuels

Section: Economic Statistics | Carmen Nery

April 27, 2021 09h00 AM | Last Updated: April 27, 2021 12h56 PM

Gasoline remains as the product with the major impact on the index - Photo: Helena Pontes/IBGE News Agency

The Extended National Consumer Price Index 15 - IPCA-15, the inflation preview, stayed at 0.60% in April, standing 0.33 percentage points (p.p.) below the rate registered in March (0.93%). The cumulative change over the year was 2.82% and, in the last 12 months, 6.17%, below the rate of 5.52% recorded in the 12 immediately previous months.  In April 2020, the rate was -0.01%. The data were released today (27) by the IBGE.

Having risen 1.76%, transportation remains as the major influence on the index (0.36 p.p.), though it decelerated over March, which recorded a change of 3.79%. Gasoline (5.49%) remains as the product with the biggest impact on the index (0.30 p.p.), albeit with a lower change than in the previous month (11.18%). Diesel fuel (2.54%) and ethanol (1.46%) rose, but also below the rates recorded in March – 10.66% and 16.38%, respectively.


Food changed 0.36%, above the rise in March. Food at home changed from a drop of 0.03% in March to 0.19% in April. Breakfast became more expensive with the rises of French bread (1.73%) and long-life milk (1.75%), whose prices had retreated in the previous month (-0.11% and -4.50%, respectively). Meat remains rising (0.61%), though with a lower change than in March (1.72%).

Still in the food sector, another highlight is the rise of 0.79% in food away from home, with positive changes in the two major components: snacks (1.34%) and meals (0.57%), which accelerated in relation to March, jointly contributing with 0.04 p.p. to the month´s result.

On the other hand, some tubers like carrots (-13.58%) and potatoes (-5.03%) dropped, as well as fruits (-2.91%) and rice (-1.44%).

In the group of health and personal care, the adjustment of up to 10.08% on April 1st, depending on the therapeutic class, impacted on the price of pharmaceuticals, which increased 0.53% after falling 0.29% in March.

After a series of adjustments in the refineries in February and March, the price of gasoline reduced twice in the end of last month, and the IPCA-15 showed a deceleration in fuels.  In the case of food and beverages, it was decelerating since December and it accelerated once again in April.

All the regions surveyed posted a positive change in April. The highest figure was registered in Brasília (0.98%), especially due to the rise in the price of gasoline (8.37%). The lowest change, in turn, was recorded in the metropolitan area of Belém (0.39%), influenced by the drop in the price of rice (-5.25%).

The IPCA-15 prices were collected from March 16 to April 13, 2021 (reference) and compared with the ones in force from February 12 to March 15, 2021 (base).

The National System of Consumer Price Indexes – SNIPC continually and systematically produces consumer price indexes.   Released for the first time on the Internet in May 2000, the IPCA-15 differs from the IPCA only in the data collection period, which is usually from day 16 of the previous month to day 15 of the reference month, as well as in the geographic coverage.

Today, the target population of the IPCA-15 encompasses households with an income between 1 and 40 minimum wages, whatever the source, living in 11 urban areas within the scope of the SNIPC, which are: metropolitan areas of Belém, Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, as well as the Federal District and the municipality of Goiânia.