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Continuous PNAD

Unemployment increases in eight Federation Units and drops in only one in Q1 2024

Section: Social Statistics | Caio Belandi

May 17, 2024 09h00 AM | Last Updated: May 18, 2024 07h14 PM

Eight states recorded increases in unemployment rate in Q1 2024 - Photo: IBGE Archive

Unemployment rate in Brazil rose to 7.9% in Q1 2024, with an increase of 0.5 percentage points (p.p.) from Q4 2023. Increase was recorded in eight Federation Units (FU). These data come from the Continuous National Household Sample Survey (Continuous PNAD), released today (17) by the IBGE. 

In the analysis by Major Regions, unemployment increased in the Northeast (rising from 10.4% to 11.1%), in the Southeast (from 7.1% to 7.6%), and in the South (from 4.5% to 4.9%), remaining stable in the North and Central-West. "Most of the Federation Units (FU) showed a tendency to increase, although only eight had statistically significant growth. The only exception was Amapá. In the other 18 Federation Units, the rate remained stable”, explains Adriana Beringuy, Coordinator of IBGE’s Household Surveys.

The northern state, the only one with a decline in the quarterly comparison, went from 14.2% in the 4th quarter of 2023 to 10.9% in the 1st quarter of 2024. Even so, it had the third highest unemployment rate in the country, behind Bahia (14.0%) and Pernambuco (12.4%). The states that registered an increase in unemployment were Acre, Bahia, Maranhão, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo and Santa Catarina. Rondônia (3.7%) and Mato Grosso (3.7%) remained stable and had the lowest rates during the period.

In the annual comparison, between the 1st quarter of 2023 and the 1st quarter of 2024, no Federation Unit registered a significant increase. "This shows that in the short-term comparison, there is an influence of seasonal patterns. However, the annual downward trend, which had been observed in other quarters, continued”, analyzes Beringuy. "The increase in the unemployment rate in the first quarter of 2024 in the quarterly comparison did not invalidate most of the labor market indicators in the annual comparison", the researcher adds.

In the quarterly comparison, average earnings increased only in the South

In the first quarter of 2024, the average usual income in the country was estimated at R$ 3,123, growing in the 4th quarter of 2023 (R$ 3,077) as well as in the 1st quarter of 2023 (R$ 3,004). In the quarterly comparison, only the South region (R$ 3,401) showed growth, while the others remained stable. Compared to the same quarter in the previous year, income increased in the North, Southeast, and South, while the other regions remained stable.

The real average monthly earnings usually received from all jobs was R$ 308.3 billion, stable compared to the previous quarter (R$ 306.2 billion) and higher than in the 1st quarter of 2023 (R$ 289.1 billion). All Major Regions experienced an increase in average earnings in both comparisons.

Unemployment decreased across all ranges of period of job search

In the first quarter of 2024, all ranges of periods of job search showed reductions. Among those who had been looking for a job for two years or more, the number decreased by 14.5% compared to the last quarter of 2023, dropping from 2.2 million to 1.9 million. However, compared to the beginning of the time series in the first quarter of 2012, when this total was 1.7 million, there has been an 8.9% increase over 12 years.

Unemployment rate remains higher among women, black and brown persons and persons with incomplete high school education

The survey also indicates that unemployment rates remain higher for women, black and brown persons, and those with incomplete high school education. All these groups had rates above the national average (7.9%). In the first quarter, the unemployment rate was estimated at 6.5% for men and 9.8% for women.

When analyzing the unemployment rate by color or race, the rate for those self- identified as white (6.2%) was below the national average, while the rates for black persons (9.7%) and brown persons (9.1%) were above it.

Regarding the analysis by education level, the unemployment rate for persons with incomplete high school education was 13.9%. For those with incomplete higher education, the rate was 8.9%, more than twice the rate observed for those with complete higher education (4.1%).

More about the survey

The Continuous PNAD is the main instrument to monitor workforce in Brazil. The survey sample per quarter corresponds to 211 thousand households surveyed in Brazil. Nearly two thousand interviewers work in the survey in 26 states and in the Federal District, integrated to the data collection network of more than 500 IBGE branches.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the IBGE implemented data collection by telephone on March 17, 2020. In July 2021, face-to-face data collection was resumed. The identity of the interviewers can be confirmed at the Answering the IBGE website or through the Call Center (0800 7218181), and their ID numbers can be requested by the informants. See PNAD data at  Sidra. The next release of the Quarterly PNAD, relative to the second quarter of 2024, will be on August 15.

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