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Continuous PNAD

Unemployment decreases to 11.6% in the quarter ended November

Section: Social Statistics | Umberlândia Cabral

January 28, 2022 09h00 AM | Last Updated: January 31, 2022 03h45 PM

Trade drives increase in employment. - Photo: Alex Rocha/PMPA

The unemployment rate fell to 11.6% in the quarter ended November, with a decrease of 1.6 percentage points in comparison with the same period in the previous quarter. The number of unemployment persons decreased by 10.6% in this same period and reached 12.4 million. That means a decrease by 1.5 million persons. In comparison with the same period in the previous year, there was a decrease of 14.5%, which means a decrease by 2.1 million persons searching for work. These data can be found in the Continuous National Household Sample Survey (Continuous PNAD), released today (28) by the IBGE.

In comparison with the quarter ended August, the number of employed persons increased to 3.5%. These are 3.2 million persons more in the labor market. “This result accompanies the path of recorvery of employment observed in the last few quarters of the survey time series. Such an increase may also be reflecting the seasonal aspect of months in the end of the year, when activities related to trade and services tend to hire more persons,” explains the IBGE’ Labor and Income Coordinator, Adriana Beringuy. The employment-population ratio (indicator that measures the percentage of employed persons in the population at working age) was estimated at 55.1%, with an increase of 1.7 percentage points against the previous quarter.


As in preceding quarters, the number of workers with a formal contrct in the private sector recorded increase The increase of 4.0% against the quarter ended August, that is, by 1.3 million persons. “In the private sector, the segments of trade, industry, health and education and information technology and communication were the ones recording the biggest increases in terms of workers with a formal contract,” the researcher says.

Also in the private sector, the total of those employed without a formal contract increased by 838 thousand persons. Against the same period in the previous year, the increase was of 18.7%. The number of self-employed workers also increased: an increase of 588 thousand persons (2.3%) from the previous quarter andof 3.2 million (14.3%) against te quarter ended November 2020. In the category of domestic workets, the increase in occupation was of 6.0% against the previous quarter and of 22.5% against the saame period in 2020..

The informality rate was 40.6% and was leveled off from the previous quarter, but with increase in the number of informal workers. “Considering the increase by 3.2 million employed persons, 43% came from informal work. So, although informality still stands out in the expansion of employment, the participation of formal work in the private sectr has increased and added to the recovery of employment in the country.

Whereas the usual real wage bill remained leveled off, having been estimated at R$227 billion, usual real earnings fell 4.5% against the previous quarter and 11.4% in relation to the same quarter in 2020. It was estimated at R$2,444 in the quarter ended November, the lowest in the time series that started in 2012.

“That means that, despite a significant increase in employment, persons who have recently joined the labor market earn less. Also, there is the effect of inflation, which influences the fall of real earnings received by workers.”

Trade affects increase of employment

Most of the expansion of employment came from trade, with an increase of 4.1%, or 719 thousand persons more working in the sector. Industry, in turn, increased by 3.7%, which means an increase of 439 thousand persons more in this group of activity. In the segment of lodging and feeding, one of the most affected ones since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, the number of workers increased by 9.3%. That amount to 438 thousand workers.

1.3 million persons leave the population out of the workforce

The population out of the workforce dropped 2.0% compared with the last quarter. In this group are persons who were neither employed not unemployed in the week of reference. The decrease was of 1.3 million persons. Against the same period last year, there was a decrease of 4.6 million.

Compared with the last quarter, 538 thousand persons left the potential workforce, which comprises the persons at working age who were neither employed nor unemployed, but had a potential to be in the workforce. Estimated at 9.1 million persons, this total recorded a decrease of 2.3 million in comparison with the same period a year ago.

Discouraged persons, that is, those who did not search for work, but would like to find a job and were available to work, were estimated at 4.9 million. There was a decrease of 6.8% against the last quarter and of 14.4% in relation to November 2020, when there were 5.7 million discouraged persons in the country.

More about the survey

The Continuous PNAD is the main instrument to monitor workforce in Brazil. The survey sample per quarter corresponds to 211 thousand households surveyed in Brazil. Nearly two thousand interviewers work in the survey in 26 states and in the Federal District, integrated to the data collection network of more than 500 IBGE branches.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the IBGE implemented data collection by telephone on March 17, 2020. The id of the interviewers can be confirmed at the Answering the IBGE website or through the Call Center (0800 7218181) by checking their ID numbers, which can be requested by the informants.

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