Profile of States and Municipalities
Funding from Aldir Blanc Law was distributed among 61.1% of the municipalities in 2021
December 08, 2022 10h00 AM | Last Updated: December 15, 2022 12h21 PM
- In 2021, 61.1% of municipalities distributed resources from the Aldir Blanc Law.
- Among the states, Paraíba, Paraná and Santa Catarina used less than 50% of the resources available by law.
- In general, 51.8% of municipalities said they had some difficulty implementing or were unable to distribute the resources of the Aldir Blanc Law, a rate that dropped to 24.5% in cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants.
- According to MUNIC, 98% of municipalities had some type of municipal management structure related to culture in 2021.
- Five Federation Units do not comply with the national basic education floor in 2021: Pará, Ceará, Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
- The existence of Municipal Education Councils was observed in 94.9% of the municipalities, however, only in 18.6% 12 or more meetings were held in 2021.
- At the state level, all Federation Units had a State Education Council. Rondônia, Acre and Amazonas had not held 12 meetings or more in the period.
- About half of the municipalities (50.8%) reported carrying out training for members of the Municipal Council of Education.
The results of 2021 Munic show that 61.1% of municipalities carried out the distribution of resources from the Aldir Blanc Law. In regional terms, the region with the highest rate of municipalities that distributed resources was the Northeast (71.3%), followed by the South (61.2%) and Southeast (60.6%).
“We have noticed that the distribution of resources from the Aldir Blanc Law increases as the population of the locations increases. In municipalities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, for example, 100% of the municipalities reported having distributed resources through the law in 2021”, claims Rosane Oliveira, manager of the survey.
“The analysis of the application of the Aldir Blanc Law is one of the highlights of this edition of Munic and Estadic, as it was an emergency way of dealing with the economic challenges in the cultural area during the pandemic. The law was enacted in June 2020 with three types of transfer of Federal resources: the monthly emergency income for workers in the cultural area, under the responsibility of the Federation Units; subsidies to maintain cultural spaces, such as theaters, museums and cinemas, under the responsibility of the municipalities and DF; and the holding of public notices, public calls and awards, in the scope of the states, Federal District and municipalities”, explains IBGE analyst Caroline Santos.
The results from Estadic 2021 showed that all Federation Units distributed the resources provided in the law, but just Paraíba, Paraná e Santa Catarina reported having used less than 50 % of the total, whereas the other 17 FUs have used more than 90% of the resources.
The highlights by type of groups or activities to which the Aldir Blanc Law resources were directed (space maintenance or notices) are musical groups (80.2%), crafts (67.6%), popular traditions (61.9%) and dance (61.4%). “In smaller municipalities, support to groups focused on disseminating local popular culture predominates. The larger ones have a greater diversity of groups to which they managed to distribute resources, as they have greater structural and organizational capacity to manage them”, analyzed Caroline.
In general, 51.8% of the municipalities claimed to have found some difficult implementing the Law or distributing its resources. Of note, also, is that the smaller the municipality, the higher the percentage of those facing this issue. That shows that the structure and organizational level that characterizes the larger municipalities help in the use of resources, as just 26.3% of those with more than 50 thousand residents have found some difficulty against 68,6% of the municipalities with up to 5 thousand residents.
Almost all municipalities had some managing structures related to culture
In 2021, 98.0% of the municipalities had some type of municipal management structure related to culture. This result stood 2 percentage points above that of 2018 and of 2014 - years used as a comparison basis in the study as they maintain a similar structure and allow comparability of information and maintenance of the time series for the indicators which are considered relevant.
Also according to Munic, 35.1% of the total municipalities did not comply with the budget destined to culture in 2021, with 1,531 municipalities without an estimate and 425 carrying out 0% the estimated budget. “This is a worrisome result from the point of view of the sector development in the country. It reflects, to a certain extent, the fiscal decline of the federated entities due to the weak performance of the Brazilian economy in the period”, says the survey manager.
Between 2018 and 2021 there was a reduction in the number of municipalities that supported cultural activities financially. Drop from 94.6% to 76,7% of municipalities, in the 12 months before the survey. The results for the states showed that 26 Federation Units granted financial support to some type of cultural activity”, observes Ms. Rosane Oliveira.
“Also due to the pandemic, we realized the need for the inclusion of cultural activities to be offered online in the questionnaires. Besides, another novelty was the focus on the local and popular cultural events as category of analysis of type of activity fostered by states and municipalities and of some equipment related to their development”, clarifies Ms. Santos.
Five Federation Units do not comply with the national salary in primary education
In 2021, among the 25 Federation Units with 40-weekly-hour teachers, five claimed not to have complied with the National Professional Wage Floor for Public Teaching in Basic Education - a value equal or above R$ 2,886.24 by month at the time of the survey interview, for all teachers working those hours: Pará, Ceará, Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Municipal education was responsible for managing education supply, quality and equity for nearly 23.1 million registrations of children, youngsters and adults in the different level and modes of public basic education, with 6.3 million in child education and 15.5 million in regular primary education. The state education networks were responsible for nearly 15.0 million registrations, of which 6.6 million were in the regular basic education and 6.6 million in the regular secondary education.
There was growth in the number of municipalities with a Municipal Education Council, a body of fundamental participation to characterize the municipal education management ass democratic, growing from 92.8% in 2018 to 94.9% in 2021, with 91.3% of the municipalities having an active council. In the state sphere, all Federation Units had a Sate Education Council. Rondônia, Acre and Amazonas did not hold the 12 or more meetings, while Tocantins and Paraná held 13.
“Education is a very structured area in the country in a broad way and the same can be seen in relation to the councils, when we see society taking part in the management of the area. Nevertheless, the percentage of municipalities where the Municipal Education Council held 12 or more meetings was low, just 18.6%. It is worth highlighting that the questionnaire includes online meetings, therefore, the pandemics cannot be blamed for the low number”, claims Ms. Oliveira.
68.9% of the municipalities choose school headmasters by nomination
According to Munic 2021, 3,835 municipalities (68.9%) resort just to nomination as a criterion for choosing the headmasters of municipal schools. This indicator revealed an interruption in the pace of decline, falling 4.9 percentage points from 2014 to 2018 and just 0.6 percentage points between 2018 and 2021.
“The nomination criterion for selecting municipal school headmasters was 5.5 times more often in least populous compared to the most populous municipalities. This indicator has been reducing along the years, since there are other types of selection, as public competition exams, elections or recruitment processes”, explains Ms. Oliveira. According to Estadic, though, two states have adopted exclusively free nomination to choose state schools headmasters of primary education: Amapá and Tocantins.
The initiative of capacity-building support to council members was not fostered in 2021. Nearly half of the municipalities (50.8%) reported to have carries out capacity-building programs with the members of the Municipal Education Council. Among the states, 14 of the 27 Federation Units have not carried out the capacity-building action.
In 2021, 68.0% of the municipalities had teachers working 40 hours a week, that is, 1,780 (32.0%) did not have teachers working 40 hours a week in the public primary education network. The states with the lowest proportions of municipalities with teachers with these working hours were Roraima (26.7%), Minas Gerais (25.2%) and Rio de Janeiro (15.2%).
More about MUNIC and ESTADIC
The Surveys of Basic Municipal and Basic State Information (MUNIC and ESTADIC) bring information on public municipal and state institutions. In 2021, MUNIC investigated eight topics: manager profile, human resources, legislation and planning instruments, education, culture, sport, health and COVID-19. In ESTADIC, the topics investigated were: human resources, education, culture, sports and health.