Quarterly Continuous PNAD: unemployment increases in eight of the 27 Federation Units in Q1 2021

May 27, 2021 09h00 AM | Last Updated: June 14, 2021 05h17 PM

Unemployment rate in Brazil reached 14.7% in Q1 2021, with an increase of 0.8 percentage points (p.p) from the quarter October-December 2020 (13.9%) and an increase of 2.5 p.p. from the same quarter in 2020 (12.2%).

Against the previous quarter unemployment rate advanced in eight Federation Units, being leveled off in the remining ones.Tocantins (5.8 p.p.), Pará (2.9 p.p.), Maranhão (2.5 p.p.) and Piauí (2.5 p.p.) recorded the biggest increases.

The highest unemployment rates were those of Pernambuco and Bahia (both with 21.3%), followed by Sergipe (20.9%) and Alagoas (20.0%). The lowest rates were those of Santa Catarina (6.2%), Rio Grande do Sul (9.2%), Paraná (9.3%) and Mato Grosso (9.9%), the only ones below 10.0%.advanced in eight Federation Units, being leveled off in the remining ones.

The unemployment rate by sex was 12,.% for men and 17.9% for women in Q1 2021. By color or race, the rate was below the national average for whites (11.9%) and above for blacks (18.6%) and browns (16.9%).

The unemployment rate for persons with incomplete high school education, 24.4%, was above that for other levels of schooling. For persons with incomplete higher education, the rate was 17.5%, more than twice as that registered for complete higher education (8.3%).

In Q1 2021, the compound underutilization rate of the workforce (percentage of persons unemployed, underemployed, time-related unemployed and in the potential workforce in relation to extended workforce) was 29.7%. The highest rates were those of Piauí (48.7%), Maranhão (47.3%), Alagoas (46.9%) and Bahia (44.8%) and the lowest, of Santa Catarina (11.9%), Mato Grosso (16.7%), Paraná (18.7%) and Rio Grande do Sul (18.8%).

The number of discouraged persons in Q1 2021 was 6.0 million persons. The biggest percentage was found in Bahia (785 thousand discouraged persons, or 13.2% of the national overall).

The percentage of discouraged persons (versus the population in the workforce or discouraged) in Q1 2021 was 5.6%. Maranhão (20.8%) and Alagoas (17.9%) recorded the biggest percentages; Santa Catarina (1.1%), Mato Grosso (1.7%) and Paraná (1.9%), the smallest.

The percentage of workers with a formal contract was 75.3% of workers in the private sector. The biggest percentage were those of Santa Catarina (88.4%), Rio Grande do Sul (84.7%), Paraná (83.8%) and São Paulo (82.7%) and the lowest, of Maranhão (48.0%), Piauí (54.5%) and Pará (54.6%).

Self-employed workers in the country made up 27.8%. The Federation Units recording the biggest percentages were Amapá (37.2%), Amazonas (35.4%) and Maranhão (35.2%) and the smallest, the Federal District (20.2%), São Paulo (24.0%) and Minas Gerais (24.9%).

The informality rate for Brazil was 39.6% of the employed population. The biggest rates were those of Maranhão (61.6%), Amazonas (59.6%) and Pará (59.0%) and the lowest, of Santa Catarina (27.7%), Federal District (29.3%) and São Paulo (29.5%).

In Brazil, the average usual real monthly earningswas R$ 2,544, levelled off in both comparisons. Among the Federation Units, against the previous quarter, only Paraíba (-11.8%) and Amazonas (-8.3%) recorded significant changes. From the same quarter in 2020, only Rio de Janeiro (7.9%) did.

Unemployment rates advanced in eight Federation Units in Q1 2021

Against the previous quarter , unemployment rate increased in eight Federation Units: Tocantins (5.8 p.p.), Pará (2.9 p.p.), Maranhão (2.5 p.p.), Piauí (2.5 p.p.), Pernambuco (2.3 p.p.), Amazonas (2 p.p.), Minas Gerais (1.6 p.p.) e Santa Catarina (0.9 p.p.), with leveled off figures in the other ones.

In comparison with the same month in 2020, there were increases in 16 Federation Units, with stability in the other ones. Pernambuco (6.8 p.p.), Sergipe (5.4 p.p) and Tocantins (5.1 p.p.) recorded the biggest increases.

Unemployment rate of persons aged 14 and over, by Federation Unit
against the previous moving quarter (%) - Q1 2021

PI has highest underutilization rate (48.7%) and SC, the lowest (11.9%)

In Q1 2021, the compound underutilization of workforce (percentage of unemployed persons, time-related unemployed ones ad in the potential workforce in relation to extended workforce) was 29.7%. Piauí (48.7%) recorded the highest rate, followed by Maranhão (47.3%), Alagoas (46.9%) and Bahia (44.8%). The lowest rates were those of Santa Catarina (11.9%), Mato Grosso (16.7%), Paraná (18.7%) and Rio Grande do Sul (18.8%), the only Federation Units with a rate below 20%.

Compound underutilization of workforce by Federation Unit (%) – Q1 2021

AP has biggest proportion of self-employed workers (37.2%) and DF, the smallest (20.2%)

The percentage of self-employed persons in the country in Q12021 was 27.8%. The biggest percentages were those of the North (33.5%) and Northeast (32.0%). The Federation Units with the biggest percentages were Amapá (37.2%), Amazonas (35.4%) and Maranhão (35.2%) and with the smallest, Federal District (20.2%), São Paulo (24.0%) and Minas Gerais (24,9%), the only ones with a percentage below 25%.

Percentage of self-employed persons, by Federation Unit (%) - Q1 2021

UF Valor
Federal District 20.2
São Paulo 24.0
Minas Gerais 24.9
Santa Catarina 25.6
Mato Grosso do Sul 25.6
Rio Grande do Sul 26.8
Rio Grande do Norte 26.9
Goiás 27.4
Paraná 27.6
Brazil 27.8
Alagoas 28.2
Tocantins 28.5
Espírito Santo 28.8
Mato Grosso 28.8
Rio de Janeiro 29.5
Sergipe 29.7
Acre 31.0
Bahia 31.4
Roraima 31.8
Ceará 32.1
Piauí 32.9
Pernambuco 32.9
Pará 33.4
Rondônia 33.7
Paraíba 34.8
Maranhão 35.2
Amazonas 35.4
Amapá 37.2

Maranhão has smallest percentage of workers with a formal contract (48.0%) and Santa Catarina, the highest (88.4%)

In Q1 2021, 75.3% of the workers in the private sector had a formal employment contract. The North (60.3%) and Northeast Regions (59.0%) recorded the lowest rates. Among domestic workers, 27.2% had a formal employment contract.

The Federation Units with the biggest percentages of workers with a formal contract in the private sector were Santa Catarina (88.4%), Rio Grande do Sul (84.7%), Paraná (83.8%) and São Paulo (82.7%). Maranhão (48.0%), Piauí (54.5%) and Pará (54.6%) had the smallest percentages.

Percentage of workers WITH a formal contract
in the private sector, by Federation Unit (%) - Q1 2021

UF Value
Maranhão 48.0
Piauí 54.5
Pará 54.6
Ceará 55.0
Bahia 58.7
Sergipe 59.5
Tocantins 60.0
Amapá 64.0
Pernambuco 64.6
Paraíba 64.7
Alagoas 64.9
Roraima 65.1
Rio Grande do Norte 65.4
Amazonas 65.6
Acre 67.3
Rondônia 70.6
Goiás 72.0
Brazil 75.3
Minas Gerais 76.0
Espírito Santo 76.7
Mato Grosso 76.8
Mato Grosso do Sul 77.3
Federal District 78.1
Rio de Janeiro 79.3
São Paulo 82.7
Paraná 83.8
Rio Grande do Sul 84.7
Santa Catarina 88.4

In the quarter, average yield was stable in 25 Federation Units and, in the year, in 26

In Brazil, monthly usual average earnings of the employed population earning income was R$ 2,544, being leveled off in both comparisons. Among the Federation Units, there were two decreases in terms of earnings: Paraíba (-11.8%) and Amazonas (-8.3%). The other Federation Units did not record significant changes in this comparison. Against the same quarter in 2020, there was an increase of 7.9% in Rio de Janeiro, without statistically significant changes in the other Federation Units.

The biggest increases were those in the Federal District (R$ 4,345), Rio de Janeiro (R$ 3,264) and São Paulo (R$ 3,202) and the smallest in Maranhão (R$ 1,484), Piauí (R$ 1,569) and Bahia (R$ 1,597).

Average monthly real earnings, usually earned, by Federation Unit (%) - Q1 2021

FU Value (R$)
Federal District 4,345
Rio de Janeiro 3,264
São Paulo 3,202
Rio Grande do Sul 2,870
Santa Catarina 2,818
Paraná 2,793
Mato Grosso do Sul 2,629
Brazil 2,544
Mato Grosso 2,426
Roraima 2,339
Espírito Santo 2,337
Goiás 2,302
Tocantins 2,249
Amapá 2,208
Minas Gerais 2,197
Acre 2,010
Rondônia 1,981
Rio Grande do Norte 1,908
Pernambuco 1,845
Paraíba 1,818
Amazonas 1,802
Pará 1,797
Ceará 1,748
Sergipe 1,738
Alagoas 1,623
Bahia 1,597
Piauí 1,569
Maranhão 1,484

MA has the highest informality rate (60.3%) and SC, the smallest (27.8%)

Informality rate in Q1 2021 stayed at 39.6% of the employed population. The highest rates were those of Maranhão (61.6%), Amazonas (59.6%) and Pará (59.0%) and the lowest, of Santa Catarina (27.7%), Federal District (29.3%) and São Paulo (29.5%).

To calculate the informality rate proxy of the employed populaton, the following are considered: Persons employed in the private sector without a formal contract; Domestic worker without a formal contract; Employer without a CNPJ registration; Self-employed worker without a CNPJ registration; Contributing family worker.

Informality rate of the employed population, by Federation Unit (%) - Q1 2021

UF Value
Maranhão 61.6
Amazonas 59.6
Pará 59.0
Piauí 56.6
Ceará 53.9
Bahia 53.8
Sergipe 53.6
Paraíba 51.3
Pernambuco 51.3
Rondônia 49.8
Amapá 49.2
Roraima 49.1
Alagoas 47.6
Acre 46.5
Rio Grande do Norte 45.2
Tocantins 44.6
Goiás 40.9
Mato Grosso 40.8
Espírito Santo 40.6
Brazil 39.6
Minas Gerais 38.4
Mato Grosso do Sul 37.7
Rio de Janeiro 37.2
Paraná 31.3
Rio Grande do Sul 31.0
São Paulo 29.5
Federal District 29.3
Santa Catarina 27.7