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PAM 2019: value of national agricultural production increased by 5.1% and hit record of R$361 billion

October 01, 2020 10h00 AM | Last Updated: October 07, 2020 05h04 AM

The value of agricultural production in Brazil increased once again in 2019, by 5.1% then, and hit R$361.0 billion, a new record in the time series initiated in 1974. In 2018, it had increased by 8.3%. The result in 2019 was pushed by grains (6.8%), whose value reached R$212.6 bilion, with a highlight to the rise of beans (33.6%), corn (26.3%) and cotton (24.8%).

Planted area is 3.3% bigger against the 2018 figure, amounting to 81.2 million hectares, being 1.2 million alone for corn and 1.1 million hectares for soybean crops.

The record grain harvest of 2019 surpassed the 2018 figure by 6.8% and the super harvest of 2017 by 1.9%, amounting to 243.3 million metric tons. the main items recording increase were corn (22.8%), upland cotton (seed, 39.1%). The output of soybean and rice decreased by 3.1% and 12.2%, respectively.

With a record production of upland cotton in (6.9 million metric tons), Brazil expanded the volume of raw cotton exports by 65.7%, and it is now the second main exporter, after the USA. Mato Grosso and Bahia account for 89.2% of the overall output.

Soybean, which accounted for 59.1% of the grain value of output, remained in the first position, among the mais crops in the country, with a total R$125.6 billion. That increase, however, fell by 1.8% against 2018.

Among the major Regions, the Central West reached the highest value of agricultural output, R$ 107.9 billion, 12.2% more than in the previous year, with soybean as the main crop, followed by corn and sugarcane. The leader in the region was Mato Grosso, which generated R$58.4 billion, or 54.1% of the regional value.

Sorriso registered the highest municipal value of agricultural output (MT), R$3.9 billion, which is equivalent to 1.1% of the value of output in the country. Of the 50 municipalities with the highest figures, 22 were located in Mato Grosso and accounted, together, for a value of production on R$ 37.1 billion.

Sorriso (MT) was the main producer of soybeans and corn in the country. Sapezal, also in Mato Grosso, had the biggest output of upland cotton. Palmeira das Missões (RS) led the corn production, and coffee had its major figures in Patrocínio (MG).

All this data is part of the IBGE's Municipal Agricultural Production (PAM) 2019, a survey that investigates area, output, yield and value of output for 64 agricultural products. 

The record R$361.0 billion of the production value in 2019 was influenced by the output increase of three important Brazilian commodities: corn (22.8%), which, for the first time, exceeded 100 million metric tons (101.1 million); upland cotton 939.1%), which reached a record figure of 6.9 million metric tons and sugarcane (0.8%), one of the main agricultural products in the country and that has recovered positions from the previous year.

A highlight is upland cotton (seed), which, for the third straight year, recorded increase in crops. It surpassed the record figure of a year ago and hit 6.9 milliom metric tons in production volume (an increase of 39.1%) and value of production of R$ 16.0 billion (an increase of 24.8%).

Soybean, the main agricultural commodity produced in Brazil, despite the expansion of 3.2% in harvested area, decreased (-3.1%) in terms of the volume produced in 2019, due to harsh climate conditions in some important producing areas.

Area planted or to be harvested, harvested area, amount produced, average yield, value of production, change of production and of production value against the previous year, by main products - Brazil - 2019
Main products  Area Amount produced 
Average yield
(1.000 R$)
Change (%) Participation in the total value of national production  (%)
Area planted or to be harvested (ha) Harvested area
Of output against the previous year Of  production value  against 2018 
Total 81.176.283 80.576.400 ... ... 361.000.875 ... 4,9 ...
Soybean (grain) 35.930.334 35.881.447 114.269.392 3.185 125.590.826 -3,1 -1,8 34,8
Sugarcane (1) 10.109.413 10.081.170 752.895.389 74.683 54.727.021 0,8 5,3 15,2
Corn (grain) 17.776.669 17.518.054 101.138.617 5.773 47.597.070 22,8 26,3 13,2
Coffee - Total (bean) 1.825.035 1.823.403 3.009.402 1.650 17.641.885 -15,3 -22,0 4,9
Arabica 1.437.074 1.435.504 2.093.429 1.458 13.547.536 -21,4 -25,1 3,8
Canephora 387.961 387.899 915.973 2.361 4.094.350 2,9 -9,9 1,1
Upland cottom
1.627.445 1.627.163 6.893.340 4.236 15.994.229 39,1 24,8 4,4
Orange 592.814 589.610 17.073.593 28.957 9.510.546 1,4 0,7 2,6
Manioc 1.213.459 1.190.121 17.497.115 14.702 8.806.923 -2,1 -11,5 2,4
Paddy rice 1.727.194 1.710.049 10.368.611 6.063 8.764.989 -12,2 0,8 2,4
Banana (bunch) 467.639 461.751 6.812.708 14.754 7.514.598 1,3 8,2 2,1
Bean (seed) 2.769.934 2.610.585 2.906.508 1.113 7.467.931 -0,3 33,6 2,1
Tobacco (leaf) 363.233 361.827 769.801 2.128 6.711.443 1,8 4,1 1,9
Tomato 54.916 54.537 3.917.967 71.841 5.667.002 -5,1 15,2 1,6
Potato 116.804 116.682 3.696.930 31.684 5.422.019 -0,9 70,8 1,5
Wheat (grain) 2.114.074 2.098.003 5.604.158 2.671 4.068.256 2,5 6,2 1,1
Grape 74.866 74.625 1.485.292 19.903 3.357.069 -6,7 10,8 0,9
Other 4.412.454 4.377.373 ... ... 32.159.058 ... 13,2 8,9
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Agropecuária, Produção Agrícola Municipal 2019.  (1) Planted are a refers to the area that will be harvested in the year.

In the ranking of 10 crops wih highest value of production, 2019 brought two modifications. Orange surpassed manioc, and went to the sixth position in terms of value of production, and beans was back to the 10th position. Soybean, despite retraction of 1.8% in the year, amounted to R$ 125.6 billion, and remained in the first position. Then come sugarcane (R$ 54.7 billion), with an increaase of 5.3% and corn (R$ 47.6 billion), with a significant increase of 26.3%.

In the last 25 years, soybean went from the third to the first position. With the current R$ 125.6 billion, it has recorded an increase of 3,449% in nominal figures since 1995. The increase of planted area was 207.3%, with a change from 11.7 million hectares, in 1995, to 35.9 million hectares in 2019. In this period of time, the volume of soybean produced recorded an increase of 344.9%, with increase of average yield for that crop of 44.8%.It left the level of 2,199 kilograms per hectare in 1995 and reached 3,185 kg/ha in 2019.

In the same period, the second biggest percentage increase in production value was that of sugarcane, with an increase of 1,225.9%. Corn, however, was close behind (1,216.1%).
Grain harvest hits record figure in 2017

The harvest of cereals, legumes and oilseeds in 2019 surpassed by 6.8% the output of 2018 and by 1.9% that of 2017, with an overall output of 243.3 million metric tons. The main crops accounting for that increase were corn (22.8%) and upland cotton (39.1%). In turn, soybean (-3.1%) and rice (-12.2%) recorded decreases.

The group had a record figure in volume of production as well: R$ 212.6 billion, with a hike of 6.8%. The result was mainly influenced by the increases in upland cotton (24.8%), corn (26.3%) and beans (33.6%).

Soybean – The value of soybean production, which makes up 59.1% of the total in cereals, legumes and oilseeds, fell 1.8%, or R$ 125.6 billion. And output ended 2019 with retraction of 3.1%, or a total 114.3 million metric tons.

Sorriso (MT) was the main municipal producer of soybean in 2019 (2.1 million metric tons), although with an output 4.0% smaller than in 2018. In second place came Nova Mutum (MT) and Formosa do Rio Preto (BA), both with about 1.3 million metric tons.

Cotton – With a record output of upland cotton seed, 6.9 million metric tons, the country had an increase in volume of exports of raw cotton by 65.7%, and became the second main world exported, only second to the United States of America. National production increased for the third year in a row and harvested area increased by 41.5% in 2019, as it reached 1.6 million hectares.

In 2019, Sapezal (MT) was the leading municipality regarding upland cotton, with 894.8 thousand metric tons, or almost one third of the entire production in (2.9 million metric tons). Another highlight was São Desidério (BA) which, with 592.7 thousand metric tons, produced more than one third of cotton in Bahia (1.5 million metric tons). Mato Grosso and Bahia produced, together, almost 90.0% of all the upland cotton in the country.

Corn – The national output of corn was led by the positive result of the second crop, with an increase of 11.0% in planted area and 74.2% of the record output of 101.1 million metric tons (an increase of 22.8%). Corn exports also reached record figures: 42.8 million metric tons, 86.2% more against 2018.

Mato Grosso is still in the first position in terms of corn production, with 31.5 million metric tons, being 99.1% of its production harvested during the second crop. Value of production in Mato Grosso reached R$ 11.8 billion, with an increase of 28.4%.

The 20 biggest municipal producers of corn were in the Central West. Sorriso (MT) is the main producer, with 3.1 million metric tons; Rio Verde (GO), the second (2.3 million metric tons) and Nova Ubiratã (MT), the third (1.8 million metric tons).

Winter cereals – All the winter cereals recorded increases in output, which reached 7.0 million metric tons, and hit a production value of R$ 4.9 billion. Rye (24.4%) and barley (23.8%) had the biggest increment. But the highlight was wheat, with 5.6 million metric tons produced.
Rio Grande do Sul took the leadership of winter crops in 2019. A total 3.1 million metric tons, with a value of production of R$ 1.9 billion.

The municipality with the biggest production of wheat was Palmeira das Missões (RS), with 108.0 thousand metric tons, harvested, with an increase of 96.4% against the previous year. The production value of wheat was 86.4 million reais, with an increase of 138.0%. The second main producer of wheat in the country was País foi Tibagi (PR), with 78.0 thousand metric tons and value of production of 56.7 million reais.

Coffee - Brazil is the main producer of coffee in the world. In 2019, despite the decrease of 15.3% in comparison with 2018, the country produced 3.0 million metric tons, significantly above the second main producer, Vietnã (1.9 million metric tons). Value of production, R$ 17.6 billion, also decreased (22.0%). The amount of coffea arábica produced decreased (-21.4%), but that of canephora recorded increase (2.9%).

MT concentrates 22 of the 50 municipalities with the highest production value figures

Among the 50 municipalities with the highest agricultural production values, 22 were located in Mato Grosso. The value of production reached in them amounted to R$ 37.1 billion reais. Goiás, Bahia and Mato Grosso do Sul, with six municipalities each, follow. The highest value of agricultural production among Brazilian municipalities was that of Sorriso (MT), which accounted for 1.1% of the production value generated in the country. In 2019, there were a total R$ 3.9 billion (an increase of 19.7%), as the municipality recovered the position it had lost for São Desidério (BA) in 2018.

With an important participation in the output of grain, Sorriso (MT) was a highlight as the national producer of corn and soybean. In 2019, the municipality had an output of 3.2 million metric tons of corn (a hike of 11.4%) and of 2.1 million metric tons of soybean (a retraction of 4.0%). Another highlight was the production of upland cotton (179.0 thousand metric tons), with the 10th biggest volume produced among the municipalities in the country. The output of beans (74.7 thousand metric tons) and rice (19.4 thousand metric tons) also recorded increase.

Sapezal (MT) had the second biggest value of agricultural production in the country, R$ 3.4 billion (an increase of 1.1%). It was the main municipal producer of corn, with 894.8 thousand metric tons (a hike of 18.2%), accounted for 13.0% of the national total. Its output of beans, despite the decrease of 3.4%, reached 1.2 million metric tons, and placed the municipality in the 9th national position in terms of generation of that oilseed (R$ 1.2 billion). The output of corn had a retraction of 39.3%, amounting to 753.0 thousand metric tons.

And the third position was that of São Desidério (BA), whose value of production reached R$ 3.2 billion (a decrease of 12.4%). It produced 592.7 thousand metric tons of cotton seed with a total value of R$ 1.5 billion, turning that municipality into the main producer in the country. Local soybean production recorded a decrease of 19.0%, with a value of production of 1.4 billion, whereas that of corn had a decrease of 39.6%, and value of production of R$ 170.2 million.

Valor total da produção e cinco produtos de maior valor da produção
por região, estado destaque e município destaque – Brasil - 2019