Between 2015 and 2017, 33.6% of the 116,962 Brazilian enterprises with ten or more workers innovated in some products or processes, a rate 2.4 percentage points below that reported in the previous triennium (2012-2014), when it hit 36.0%. This is unveiled by the IBGE´s Survey of Innovation - Pintec 2017. Industry was more affected, as the percentage of innovative enterprises fell from 36.4% in 2014 to 33.9% in 2017, the lowest level of the last three editions.
The investment in innovative activities reached R$67.3 billion in 2017, representing 1.95% of the net revenue of the enterprises, a drop of 17.42% in relation to R$81.5 billion invested in 2014, the equivalent to 2.5% of the net revenue. Of all outlays, R$25.6 billion were spent in internal activities of R&D, hitting 0.74% of the sales revenue. Other R$21.2 billion were applied in the acquisition of machinery and equipment, 0.62% of the sales revenue, and R$7.0 billion in the external acquisition of R&D, 0.20% of the sales revenue.
The survey also highlighted that the percentage of enterprises that benefited from some incentive of the government retreated from 39.9% in 2014 to 26.2% in 2017. As the major incentive to innovation, funding for the acquisition of machinery and equipment was the type that mostly lost relevance, falling from 29.9% benefited companies to 12.9% in the same period.
On the other hand, the participation of women in R&D activities in innovative enterprises increased from 20.9% in 2014 to 23.6% in 2017. The support material of the release of Pintec 2017 can be found on the right side of this page.
Nearly 40 thousand enterprises innovated between 2015 and 2017
Among the 116,962 enterprises with ten or more employed persons in the 2015-2017 triennium, 39,329 implemented either new or significantly improved products or processes. The overall innovation rate was 33.6%, 2.4 p.p. below that registered in the 2012-2014 triennium (36.0%).
Having recorded 33.9% of innovative enterprises, the lowest level of the three last editions, industry was more affected. The sectors of Electricity and gas and of Selected services maintained the downward trend posted since the 2012-2014 triennium, dropping from 29.2% to 28.4% and from 32.4% to 32%, respectively.
Companies invest R$67.3 billion in innovative activities
In 2017, the outlay of the enterprises in innovative activities was of R$67.3 billion, 1.95% of the net revenue – drop of 17.42% in relation to the R$81.5 billion invested between 2012 and 2014, the equivalent to 2.5% of the net revenue.
Industry registered the third consecutive drop in outlay with innovative activities, falling from 2.12% of the net revenue in 2014 to 1.65% in 2017. The internal activities of R&D received 0.62% of the net revenue. The biggest drop was in the outlay with the acquisition of machinery and equipment, 0.51%, against 1.11% in 2011 and 0.85% in 2014.
In the companies of electricity and gas, 0.66% of the net revenue were for innovative activities, a slight increase in relation to 2014 (0.57%) and a drop in relation to 2011 (1.28%). The participation of the outlays in external acquisition of R&D on the revenue retreated to 0.16%, against 0.83% in 2011 and 0.26% in 2014. In 2017, the acquisition of machinery and equipment rose to 0.32% of the net revenue, after falling from 0.16% to 0.09% between 2011 and 2014.
After increasing in 2014 (7.81%) compared with 2011 (4.96%), Selected services dropped to 5.79% in 2017. After a significant growth between 2011 and 2014 (from 1.38% to 3.50%), the outlays in the acquisition of machinery and equipment on the revenue fell to 1.80% in 2017. In the internal activities of R&D, the sector maintained the growth recorded between 2011 and 2014 (1.82% to 2.13%) by increasing to 2.40% in 2017.
Having hit 0.74% of the net revenue of companies, investments in internal activities of R&D take lead
In 2017, the category of machinery and equipment lost position (from 42.4% in 2011 and 41.1% in 2014 to 31.5% in 2017) in favor of the outlays in internal R&D, which took the lead in the composition, changing from 30.8% in 2011 and 30.3 in 2014 to 38.1% in 2017. The outlays of the innovative enterprises in internal activities of R&D was of 0.74% of the net revenue.
Industry registered a loss in the participation of the outlays in machinery and equipment (from 40.2% to 31.1% between 2014 and 2017), followed by the increase in the participation of the outlays in internal activities of R&D (from 31.5% to 37.4%).
In Selected services, the participation of machinery and equipment fell from 44.8% to 31.0% between 2014 and 2017, and the expenses in the activities of internal R&D rose from 27.2% in 2014 to 41.6% in 2017.
The movement was the opposite in the companies of electricity and gas, in which the outlays in the external acquisition of R&D dropped from 46.0% in 2014 to 24.5% in 2017. The acquisition of machinery and equipment increased from 15.5% in 2014 to 48.6% in 2017. The expenses in the internal activities of R&D fell from 30.0% in 2014 to 21.1% in 2017.
Proportion of enterprises that innovate only in product grows
The significant drop in the outlays in machinery and equipment may be related to the drop in the rates of innovation in processes. The acquisition of machinery and equipment, either for technological update or for the production of new products, is the most common type of innovation of processes in Brazil.
In Pintec 2017, the participation of the enterprises that innovated only in processes decreased from 17.5% in 2014 to 14.8%. The percentage of companies that innovated both in products and processes also decreased, though less intensely (-0.9 p.p.), from 14.6% to 13.7%. Conversely, the proportion of enterprises that innovated only in products increased: from 3.9% in 2014 to 5.1% in 2017.
Government expenses drop, though percentage of companies that invoke the Lei do Bem (Good Law) grows
Despite the increase of the companies that benefited from the Lei do Bem (from 3.5% in 2014 to 4.7% in 2017), the decrease of the government support was influenced by the decrease in the support to the acquisition of machinery and equipment.
In the 2015-2017 triennium, 26.2% of the innovative enterprises benefited from some support to innovation, a drop in relation to the 2009-2011 and 2012-2014 trienniums, when the proportions had been 34.2% and 39.9%, respectively.
As the major incentive to innovation, funding for the acquisition of machinery and equipment was the type that mostly lost relevance in the benefited companies, retreating from 29.9% to 12.9% in the period.
In industry, the percentage of innovative companies that funded the acquisition of machinery and equipment fell from 31.4% between 2012 and 2014 to 14.1% between 2015 and 2017. Nevertheless, this type has been the major one in the sector. In contrast, the percentage of innovative enterprises that benefited from the Lei do Bem rose from 3.2% to 4.3%.
In Selected services, the incentive to the acquisition of machinery and equipment dropped to 3.8%, against 16.1% in the previous triennium. In the case of the Lei do Bem, it increased from 6.1% to 6.7%, making this type the major source of support to innovation in these activities in the 2015-2017 triennium.
In the companies of electricity and gas, 3.2% were supported in the acquisition of machinery and equipment, against 11.1% in 2014. The access to the Lei do Bem rose from 28.8% in 2014 to 34.9% in 2017.
Selected services and industry concentrate the positive impacts of innovation
The impacts related to the improvement of quality and maintenance of market share were still the most highlighted by industry and enterprises of selected services. The investments in innovative activities improved the quality of goods and services for 92.8% of the enterprises of selected services, 82.6% of industries and 48.8% of companies of electricity and gas.
They also allowed to maintain the market share for 80.7% of the enterprises of selected services and 83.1% of industries. And it assured the increase in the market share for 73.7% of industries and 71.0% of enterprises of selected services.
Another impact highlighted was the increase in the production in the provision of services, pointed out by 75.5% of industries, 75.2% of services companies and 54.8% of enterprises of electricity and gas. The flexibility in the production also increased for 74.1% of industries, 68.9% of enterprises of selected services and 50.6% of companies of electricity and gas.
Selected services registered the highest proportion of professionals exclusively dedicated to R&D.
Among the professionals employed in the activities of research and development in 2017, 61.3% were exclusively dedicated; and 38.7%, partially; against 61.4% and 38.6% in 2014, respectively. The sector of selected services concentrated the highest percentage of exclusive dedication: 72.1%, against 57% in industry and 14.4% in electricity and gas.
More than 70% of the persons employed in the activities of R&D had higher education at least. The companies of electricity and gas recorded the highest percentage of under-graduation (69.3%) and post-graduation (17%).
Proportion of women in R&D activities grows
Although less than one quarter of the persons employed as researchers in Brazilian enterprises were women, this proportion increased in relation to the previous triennium. Between 2012 and 2014, women were 20.9% of the employed persons, a percentage that rose to 23.6% in 2015-2017.
Among the sectors in which female researchers were the majority, the highlights were: manufacture of wearing apparel and accessories (75.5%); manufacture of soaps, detergents, cleaning products, cosmetics, toiletries and personal hygiene (62.3%); pharm-chemicals (53.7%); and pharmaceuticals (60%).
Initiatives of cooperation to innovate advance
Pintec 2017 pointed out that 15.6% of the innovative enterprises carried out some kind of innovative activity with other organizations. In the sector of electricity and gas, the percentage increased from 55% in the 2012-2014 triennium to 70.1% in 2017. In industry, it changed from 14.3% to 14.9%. Suppliers were the major partners in both sectors. In Selected services, the percentage fell from 23.6% in 2014 to 18.4% in 2017. In this sector, the interaction with clients and consumers was the major form of partnership.
In industry and selected services, the internet and clients remained as the major sources of information for the innovative activities. In the sector of electricity and gas, the sources came from suppliers and other companies within the group.
The relative increase of the importance of the department of R&D for the three sectors stood out: in 2017, it was considered an important source for 45.6% of the companies of electricity and gas and for 16.4% of industries, against 26.6% and 11.8%, respectively, in 2014. On the other hand, the proportion declined from 30.5% to 24.2% for Selected services in the period.
For 82% of the innovative enterprises, economic risks were the major obstacle to innovation.
In the 2015-2017 period, excessive economic risks gained importance, becoming the major obstacle to innovation for 81.8% of the innovative companies, after ranking in the third and second positions in the 2009-2011 and 2012-2014 trienniums.
Conversely, high costs to innovate dropped from the first position in 2011 and 2014 to the second one, being pointed out by 79.7% of the innovative enterprises.
The lack of qualified personnel was pointed out by 65.5% of the innovative companies, becoming the third obstacle in the ranking, gaining space in relation to lack of appropriate sources of funding (63.9%), which fell to the fourth position.
Concerning the enterprises that did not innovate, market conditions remained as the major obstacle to prevent the innovation: 60.4% against 54.9% in the previous triennium. After that, previous innovations stood out, losing importance between the two trienniums (from 20.3% to 16.7%). Lastly, other factors were appointed by 22.9% of the enterprises, a slight drop in relation to 2012-2014 (24.8%).
The 2017 edition of Pintec reported an increase in the percentage of innovative companies that carried out biotechnology activities (4.6% against 3.4% in the previous period) and nanotechnology activities (2.3% against 1.8%). In both cases, these activities were mostly developed in larger enterprises.