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Continuous PNAD: in 2023, annual unemployment rate hit 7.8% and underutilization rate, 18.0%

January 31, 2024 09h00 AM | Last Updated: February 01, 2024 02h43 AM

The annual unemployment rate hit 7.8% and dropped by 1.8 percentage points (p.p.) from the average in 2022 (9.6%). Against 2019 (11.8%), there was a drop of 4 p.p. From 2012, when the average rate was 7.4%, increase reached 0.4 p.p.

A unemployed population in the year amounted to 8.5 million persons in 2023, with a decrease of 1.8 million (-17.6%) from 2022.

The employed population reached 100.7 million persons in 2023, and hit a record in the time series, initiated in 2012, being 3.8% above the figure of 2022. Against the average in 2012 (89.7 million persons), there was an increase of 12.3%.

The employment population ratio (percentage of employed persons in the population at working age) was estimated at 57.6% in 2023, 1.6 p.p. more than in 2022 (56.0%). The highest employment population ratio was registered in 2013 (58.3%).

Theestimated annual compound underutilization rate was 18.0%, with a drop of 2.9 p.p against 2022, when the rate had been estimated at 20.9%. This indicator hit 24.4% in 2019, 15.9% in 2014 and 18.7% in 2012.

The estimated annual underutilized population (20.9 million persons in 2023) fell by 13.0% from 2022. Despite the decrease, that figure is 26.7% above the lowest level in the series, of 2014 (16.5 million persons).

Theestimated annual time-related underemployed population of 5.4 million persons, dropped by 11.8% against the previous year.

In 2023, annual estimate of the discouraged population fell by 12.4% against 2022, having reached 3.7 million persons. The highest estimate for this population wast that of 2021 (5.6 million), and the lowest, that of 2014 (1.6 million discouraged persons).

The number of employed persons with a formal contract increased by 5.8% and reached 37.7 million persons, the highest average in the series that started in 2012.

Theannual estimate of employed persons without a formal contract recorded an increase of 5.9% in 2023 and reached 13.4 million persons. Against 2014, when the estimate had been 10.8 million persons, there was an increase of 23.7%.

Thenumber of self-employed persons amounted to 25.6 million in 2023, an increase of 0.9% in the year. Against 2012, start of the time series, when this figure was the lowest (20.1 million), there was an increase of 27.0%.

In 2022, the number of domestic workers by 6.2% and reached 6.1 million persons.

The annual informality rate went from 39.4% in 2022 to 39.2% in 2023.

Theannual average real earnings was estimated at R$ 2,979, a figure 7.2% bigger (R$199) than in 2022. Against 2012, there was an increase of 6.1%.

Theannual real usual wage bill reached R$ 295.6 billion, the highest in the series, with an increase of 11.7% (R$ 30.9 billion) against 2022. From 2012 to 2022, wagebill increased by 21.5%.

Unemployment Rate – Brazil (%)

Annual estimate of the employed population by groups of activity -2023

Among the activities, only Agriculture, livestock, forestry, fishery and acquaculture recorded a percent decrease in the employed population, 4.2%, a total of 8.1 million workers in 2023. Over 2012, when this group reached 10.2 million persons, the decrease was 20.3% (by 2.1 million persons).

Information communication and financial, real estate, professional and administrative activites was the segment with the highest percentage of increase in the employed population (9.8%) between 2022 and 2023, with a change from 11.5 to 12.6 million workers. In the first year of the series, this activity had 9.6 million persons, which points to an increase of 31.5% (by 3.0 million persons).

The group formed by Domestic services also recorded a relevant increase in 2023, of 6.1%, and, as a result, the total was 6.1 million workers. The result led the group to reach the same level as in 2012.

Transportation, storage and mailing and Lodging and feeding recorded the same percentage of increase (5.3%), both with groups reaching 5.5 million employed persons in 2023. However, the first group is 29.4% above the result of 2012 (4.2 million), whereas the second group is 48.7% (3.7 million).

General industry recorded an increase of 4.7% from 2022 to 2023, and reached 12.9 million employed persons. Thus result if 1% below the level of 2012 (13 million) and 4.3% below 2014, when it reached the highest figure in the series, 13.5 million persons.

Public administration, defense, social security, education, human health and social services increased by 4.5% from one year to the next, and reached 17.9 million employed persons, a record in the time series.

Trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles increased by 2.0%, and hit 19.0 million, also its highest result in the series. Construction and other services increased by 2.5% and complete the list.

Considering this release, the indicators of the Retrospective Annual Survey of the Labor Market of Continuous PNAD will be calculated with the annual database by visit for the survey, even recomposing the time series for such indicators. The annual reference database is the cumulative number of first visits, except 02020-2022, which used the cumulative number of fifth visits, due to the Covid-19 and the resulting drop of the response rate in first visits in this period. The indicators are available on SIDRA at Annual Continuous PNAD – Labor Market.

Keywords: PNAD Contínua: em 2023, taxa média anual de desocupação foi de 7, 8% enquanto de taxa de subutilização foi de 18, 0%