Quarterly Continuous PNAD: unemployment drops in eight of the 27 Federation Units in Q2 2023
August 15, 2023 09h00 AM | Last Updated: August 18, 2023 01h56 AM
The unemployment rate in the country in the second quarter of 2023 reached 8.0%, having dropped by 0.8 percentage points (p.p.) against the first quarter in the year (8.8%) and by 1.3 p.p) against the same quarter in 2022 (9.3%).
Against the previous quarter, the unemployment rate dropped in four of the five Major Regions, having remained stable in the South. There was also a decrease in eight of the 27 Federation Units, whereas the other 19 were stable. The Northeast kept the highest rate (11.3%), and the South, the lowest (4.7%).
The highest unemployment rates were those of Pernambuco (14.2%), Bahia (13.4%) and Amapá (12.4%), and the lowest, of Rondônia (2.4%), Mato Grosso (3.0%) and Santa Catarina (3.5%).
The unemployment rate by sex hit 6.9% among men and 9.6% among women in Q2 2023. The unemployment rate by color or race was below the national average (8.0%) among white persons (6.3%) and, above, among black persons (10.0%) and brown ones (9.3%).
The unemployment rate among persons with incomplete high school level (13.6%) exceeded the rate in the other levels of schooling.
Among persons with incomplete higher education, the rate was 8.3%, more than twice as that of persons with a higher education degree (3.8%).
In Q2 2023, the compound underutilization rate of workforce (percentage of unemployed persons, time-related underemployed persons and in the potential workforce in relation to expanded workforce) hit 17.8%. Piauí (39.7%) had the highest rate, followed by Sergipe (31.1%) and Bahia (30.9%). The lowest underutilization rates were those of Rondônia (6.3%), Santa Catarina (6.3%), and Mato Grosso (7.6%).
The number of discouraged persons in the second quarter of 2023 reached 3.7 million persons. The highest number was in the Northeast (2.3 million discouraged persons).
The percentage of discouraged persons (against the population in the workforce or discouraged) in Q2 2023 reached 3.3%.
The percentage of persons employed with a formal contract in the private sector was 73.7%.
The Northeast (59.1%) and the North (58.4%) registered levels below those in other Major Regions.
The percentage of the self-employed population in the country was 25.5%.
The highest percentages were those of Rondônia (37.8%), Amazonas (32.3%) and Amapá (31.7%) and the lowest, those of the Federal District (19.9%), Tocantins (20.7%) and Goiás (21.7%).
The informality rate for Brazil was 39.2% of the employed population. The highest rates were those of Pará (58.7%), Maranhão (57.0%) and Amazonas (56.8%) and the lowest, of Santa Catarina (26.6%), Federal District (31.2%) and São Paulo (31.6%).
In Q2 2023, a total of 2.04 million persons who had been searching for work for two years and over. That figure dropped by 31.7% against the second quarter of 2022, when there were 2.985 million persons in this group. From the second quarter in 2012 (first year of the time series), the total of persons searching for work for two years or more increased by 34.2%.
The average usual real earnings hit R$ 2,316, representing increase in earnings, whereas the other regions were stable. The North (R$ 2,316) recorded an increaase in earnings from the first quarter this year, whereas the other Major Regionbs remained stable. Against the second semester of 2022, all the Major Regions recorded expansion.
Unemployment rate drops in eight Federation Units and remains stable in other 19
Against the firt quarter this year, the unemployment rate dropped in eight Federation Units and was stable in the others. The Federal District stands out, with a change from 12.0% to 8.7%, so as Rio Grande do Norte, which went from 12.1% to 10.2%.
|UF||Q1 2023||Q2 2023||status|
|Rio de Janeiro||11.6||11.3||⇥|
|Rio Grande do Sul||5.4||5.3||⇥|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||4.8||4.1||⇥|
|Rio Grande do Norte||12.1||10.2||↓|
Piauí has highest underutilization rate (39.7%) and Rondônia, the lowest (6.3%)
In Q2 2023, the compound underutilization rate of workforce in the country reached 17.8%. Piauí (39.7%) recorded the highest rate, followed by Sergipe (31.1%) and Bahia (30.9%). The lowest rates were those of Rondônia (6.3%), Santa Catarina (6,3%), and Mato Grosso (7.6%).
Rondônia has the highest proportion of self-employed workers (37.8%) and the Federal District, the lowest (19.9%)
The percentage of the self-employed population in the country was 25.5%.
The highest percentages were those found in Rondônia (37.8%), Amazonas (32.3%) and Amapá (31.7%) and the lowest, the Federal District (19.9%), Tocantins (20.7%) and Goiás (21.7%).
|Mato Grosso do Sul||22.6|
|Rio Grande do Sul||25.2|
|Rio de Janeiro||26.2|
|Rio Grande do Norte||26.8|
Lowest percentage of workers with a formal contract is from MA (49.3%) and the highest, de SC (88.1%)
In Q2 2023, 73.3% of the workers in the private sector in Brazil had a formal employment contract. The Northeast (59.1%) and North regions (58.4%) recorded the lowest rates. Among the domestic workers, 25.5% had signed a formal employment contract in Brazil. In the same quarter last year, this proportion had been 25.1%.
Among the Federation Units, the highest percentage of workers with a formal employment contract in the private sector were in Santa Catarina (88.1%), Rio Grande do Sul (82,3%) and Paraná (81.3%) and the lowest, in Maranhão (49.3%), Pará (51.5%) and Tocantins (53.5%).
|Rio Grande do Norte||64.4|
|Rio de Janeiro||75.8|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||76.4|
|Rio Grande do Sul||82.3|
Earnings increased only in the North, against previous quarter/b>
The average usual real earnings estimate was R$ 2,921, being stable against Q1 2023 (R$ 2,923) and recording an increase against the same quarter in 2022 (R$ 2,750). Against the previous quarter, the North (R$ 2,316) was the only Major Region to record significantly increase in earnings, whereas the other ones remained stable. From Q2 2022, all the Major Regions recorded increases.
The real wage bill from all the activities usually earned per mnth by persons aged 14 and over, employed in the week of reference, was estimated at R$ 284.1 billion, recording statistical stability from the previous quarter (R$ 281.3 billion). Against Q2 2022 (R$ 265.2 billion), there was an increase of wagebill.
Pará has highest informality rate (58.7%) and SC, the lowest (26.6%)
The informality rate for Brazil was 39.2% of the employed population. The highest rates were recorded by Pará (58.7%), Maranhão (57.0%) and Amazonas (56.8%) and the lowest, by Santa Catarina (26.6%), Federal District (31.2%) and São Paulo (31.6%).
For the calculation of the informality rate of the employed population, the following groups are considered: Workers in the private sector without a formal employment contract; Domestic worker without a foram employment contract; Employment without a CNPJ number; Self-employed workers without a CNPJ number; and Contributing family worker.
|Rio Grande do Norte||44.1|
|Rio de Janeiro||37.2|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||34,1|
|Rio Grande do Sul||32.4|
Unemployment remains on a downard trend in most ranges of period of job search
In the second quarter of 2023, the figures relative to ranges of period of job search continued recording percentage decreases, as shown in the table below.
By Q2 2023, 2.04 million unemployed persons had been looking for a job for two years and more. This figure dropped by 31.7% against the second quarter of 2022, when there were 2,985 million persons in this range. There was a decrease of 945 thousand persons within this period of time. Neverheless, against the first year of the time series, in the second quarter of 2012, the total number of persons searching for work for two years or more increased by 34.2%.
|Period of job search||2nd quarter|
|Less than 1 month||931||872||861||922||1 079||1 470||1 905||1 832||1 537||1 524||1 581||1 605|
|From 1 month to less than 1 month||3 896||4 147||3 710||4 710||6 148||6 819||6 187||5 962||7 712||6 438||4 287||4 050|
|From 1 year to less than 2 years||1 016||1 046||1 091||1 423||2 139||2 388||1 880||1 837||1 455||3 057||1 227||952|
|2 years and more||1 520||1 327||1 198||1 443||2 350||2 921||3 177||3 381||2 525||3 812||2 985||2 040|
|Period of job search||Percentage change|
|Less than 1 month||-6.3||-1.3||7.1||17.0||36.2||29.6||-3.8||-16.1||-0.8||3.7||15||72.4|
|From 1 month to less than 1 year||6.4||-10.5||27.0||30.5||10.9||-9.3||-3.6||29.4||-16.5||-33.4||-5.5||4.0|
|From 1 year to less than 2 years||3.0||4.3||30.4||50.3||11.6||-21.3||-2.3||-20.8||110.1||-59.9||-22.4||-6.3|
|2 years and more||-12.7||-9.7||20.5||62.9||24.3||8.8||6.4||-25.3||51.0||-21.7||-31.7||34.2|