Continuous PNAD: unemployment drops in eight of the 27 Federation Units in Q4 2022
February 28, 2023 09h00 AM | Last Updated: February 28, 2023 10h20 PM
Unemployment rate in the country in Q4 2022 was 7.9%, havind dropped by 0.8 percentage points (p.p.) from the July-September quarter in 2022 (8.7%) and by 3.2 p.p. from the same quarter in 2021 (11.1%).
Against the previous quarter, the unemployment decreased in eight Federation UNits, remained stable in 18 and increased in only one, Amapá (2.5 p.p.). Mato Grosso do Sul (1.8 p.p.), Pernambuco (1.6 p.p.) and Bahia (1.6 p.p.) recorded the the biggest decreases.
In Q4 2022, the highest unemployment rates were those of Bahia (13.5%), Amapá (13.3%) and Pernambuco (12.3%). Rondônia (3.1%), Santa Catarina (3.2%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (3.3%) accounted for the lowest rates.
The unemployment rate by sex was 6.5% among men and 9.8% among women in Q4 2022. The unemployment rate by color or race was below the national average among white persons (6.2%) and above average for black and brown persons (9.9% and 9,2%, respectively).
The unemployment rate among persons with incomplete high school education (13.9%) surpassed rates of other levels of schooling. Among persons with incomplete higher education, the rate was 8.4%, more than twice as that registered for complete higher education (3.9%).
In Q4 2022, the compound underutilization rate (percentage of unemployed persons, time related underployed population and in the potential workforce in relation to expanded workforce) was 18.5%. Piauí (38.8%) ecorded the highest rate, followed by Sergipe (33.9%), Bahia (31.8%) and Maranhão (30.3%), all of them above 30%. The lowest rates were those of Santa Catarina (5.9%), Rondônia (7.2%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (8.5%).
The percentage of discouraged persons (against the population in the workforce or discouraged population) nin Q4 2022 was 3.6%. Maranhão (14.3%), Piauí (13.7%) and Alagoas (12.4%) recorded the highest percentages and Santa Catarina (0.4%) and Rondônia (0.9%), the lowest.
As for the duration of job search, 25.6% of the unemployed population had been searching for work for 2 years and over. This percentage was 27.2% in Q3 2022 and 30.3% in Q4 2021. On the other hand, 19.3% of the unemployed population had been looking for a job for less than a month. This proportion was 16.6% in Q3 2022 and 13.2% in Q4 2021.
The percentage of workers with a formal contract was 73.6% of persons employed in the private sector. The biggest percentages were those of Santa Catarina (87.8%), Rio Grande do Sul (81.1%) and Paraná (80.9%). THe smallest, those of Maranhão (48.3%), Pará (49.9%) and Piauí (51.9%).
The percentage of the self-employed population in the country was 25.6%. The highest percentage were those of Rondônia (36.5%), Amapá (34.3%) and Amazonas (31.9%) and the lowest, in the Federal District (19.4%), Tocantins (21.2%) and Goiás (21.7%).
The informality rate in Brazil was 38.8% of the employed population. The highest rates were those of Pará (60.8%), Maranhão (57.4%) and Amazonas (57.0%) and the lowest, of Santa Catarina (25.9%), Federal District (29.7%) and São Paulo (30.5%).
Unemployment rates dropped in eight Federation Units from the previous quarter
Against the previous quarter, the unemployment rate fell in eight Federation Units, and increased only in Amapá (2.5 p.p.) and was stable in the others. Mato Grosso de Sul (1.8 p.p), Pernambuco (1.6 p.p) and Bahia (1.6 p.p.) recorded the biggest decreases.
against the previous moving quarter (%) - Q4 2022
|FU||Q3 2022||Q4 2022||status|
|Rio Grande do Norte||10.5||9.9||⇥|
|Rio de Janeiro||12.3||11.4||↓|
|Rio Grande do Sul||6.0||4.6||↓|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||5.1||3.3||↓|
Piauí has the highest underutilization rate (38.8%) and SC, the lowest (5.9%)
In Q4 2022, the compound underutilization rate (percentage of unemployed persons, time related underployed population and in the potential workforce in relation to expanded workforce) was 18.5%. Piauí (38.8%), Sergipe (33.9%) and Bahia (31.8%) recorded the highest rates. The lowest ones were recorded by Santa Catarina (5.9%), Rondônia (7.2%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (8.5%).
aged 14 and over, by FU (%) - Q4 2022
|Mato Grosso do Sul||8.5|
|Rio Grande do Sul||11.4|
|Rio de Janeiro||18.6|
|Rio Grande do Norte||26.8|
Rondônia has highest proportion of self-employed workers (36.5%) and the Federation Unit, the lowest (19.4%)
The percentage of self-employed workers was 25.6%. The highest percentages were those of Rondônia (36.5%), Amapá (34.3%) and Amazonas (31.9%) and the lowest were those of the Federal District (19.4%), Tocantins (21.1%) and Goiás (21.7%).
|Mato Grosso do Sul||21.9|
|Rio Grande do Sul||25.2|
|Rio Grande do Norte||25.5|
|Rio de Janeiro||27.0|
Maranhão has lowest percentages of workers with a formal contract and Santa Catarina, the highest (87.8%)
In Q4 2022, 73.6% of the workers in the private sector had signed a formal contract. Among Federation Units, the highest percentages were those of Santa Catarina (87.8%), Rio Grande do Sul (81.1%) and Paraná (80.9%). The lowest percentages were those of Maranhão (48.3%), Pará (49.9%) and Piauí (51.9%).
WITH a formal contract in the private sector, by Federation Unit (%) - Q4 2022
|Rio Grande do Norte||65.3|
|Rio de Janeiro||76.4|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||77.4|
|Rio Grande do Sul||81.1|
Against the previous quarter, average earnings increase in two Major Regions
In Q4 2022, real average earnings from all the activities, usually earned per month, by persons aged 14 and over, employed in the week of reference, with income from work, was estimated at R$ 2,808. This result also recorded an increase of 1.9% from the quarter July-September 2022 (R$ 2,757) and of 8.3% from the same quarter a year ago (R$ 2,594).
The comparison between Q3 and Q4 2022, only the Central West and Southeast recored an increase and the others had statistical stability. In relation to Q4 2021, average earnings increased in all the Major Regions.
The wage bill from all activities, usually earned per month, by persons aged 14 and over, employed in the week of reference, with income from work, was estimated at R$ 274.3 billion. In comparison with the moving quarter July-September 2022, there was an increase of 2.1%, that is, by R$ 5.6 billion. Against the same quarter in 2021, there was an increase of 12.85, with an increase of R$ 31.2 billion in wagebill.
Pará has the highest informality rate (60.8%) and Santa Catarina, the lowest (25.9%)
Informality rate in Q4 2022 amounted to 38.8% of the employed population. The highest rates were those of Pará (60.8%), Maranhão (57.4%) and Amazonas (57.0%) and the lowest, of Santa Catarina (25,9%), Federal District (29.7%) and São Paulo (30.5%).
The calculation of informality rate of the employed population considers the following groups: Workers in the private sector without a formal contract. Domestic worker without a formal contract; Worker without a CNPJ registry; Self-employed worker without a CNPJ registry; Auxiliary family worker.
employed in the week of reference, by Federation Unit (%) - Q4 2022
|Rio Grande do Norte||44.6|
|Rio de Janeiro||36.8|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||32.7|
|Rio Grande do Sul||31.7|
One out of every four unemployed persons had been searching for work for two years and over
In Q4 2022, Continuous PNAD showed that 25.6% of the unemployed population had been searching for work for at least two years. This percentage has decreased, though. It was 27.2% in Q3 2022 and 30.3% in Q4 2021.
On the other hand, 19.3% of the unemployed population had been searching for work for less than one month. This proportion has increased. It was 16.6% in Q3 2022 and 13.2% in Q4 2021.
|Number and proportion of unemployed persons by ranges of duration of job search|
|Duration of search||Q4 2021||Q3 2022||Q4 2022|
|thousand persons||%||thousand persons||%||thousand persons||%|
|Less than 1 month||1,580||13.2||1,573||16.6||1,651||19.3|
|FRom 1 month to less than 1 year||4,737||39.4||4,208||44.5||3,734||43.6|
|From 1 year to less than 2 years||2,057||17.1||1,103||11.7||995||11.6|
|2 years and over||3,637||30.3||2,575||27.2||2,191||25.6|