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Continuous PNAD: in 2022, average annual unemployment rate was 9.3%, average annual underutilization rate was 20.8%

February 28, 2023 09h00 AM | Last Updated: March 01, 2023 11h33 AM

The average unemployed population in the year added up to 10.0 million people in 2022, a drop of 3.9 million (-27.9%) over 2021. Nevertheless, the number of people searching for a job was 46.4% higher than in 2014, when the labor market registered the smallest contingent of unemployed persons (6.8 million) in the time series of the Continuous PNAD.

The average annual unemployment rate was estimated at 9.3%, retreating 3.9 percentage points (p.p.) over 2021 (13.2%). Compared with 2014, the growth was of 2.4 percentage points, with the indicator changing from 6.9% (2014) to 9.3% (2022). Compared with 2012, when the rate was 7.4%, the increase was of 1.9 p.p.

The average employed population reached 98.0 million people in 2022, the highest annual average in the time series and 7.4% above 2021. Compared with 2012, when the average annual employed population was 89.6 million people, it increased 9.4%.

The average employment-population ratio - percentage of employed persons in the population at working age - was estimated at 56.6% in 2022, the second consecutive year after the lowest level ever recorded, in 2020 (51.2%). The highest employment-population ratio occurred in the years of 2013 and 2014, when it reached 58,1% of the population at working age.

The average annual composite underutilization rate was estimated at 20.8%, a reduction of 6.4 p.p. in relation to 2021, when the rate was estimated at 27.2%. That indicator was 28.2% in 2020, 15.1% in 2014 and 18.4% in 2012.

The average annual underutilized population (24.1 million people in 2022) retreated 23.2% over 2021. Despite the reduction, that contingent was 54.7% above the lowest level in the time series, hit in 2014 (15.6 million people).

The average annual contingent of time-related underemployed persons, estimated at 6.2 million people, retreated 17.3%. The unemployed population (10.0 million people) dropped (-27.9%) between 2021 and 2022.

In 2022, the average annual discouraged population decreased 19.9% over 2021, reaching 4.3 million people. The highest estimate for that population occurred in 2020 (5.5 million) and the lowest one, in 2014 (1.5 million discouraged people).

The average annual number of workers with a formal contract increased 9.2% and hit 35.9 million people, consolidating the trend reverse started in 2021.

On the other hand, the average annual number of workers without a formal contract in the private sector increased 14.9% in 2022, after a steep drop in 2020. The contingent changed from 11.2 million (2021) to 12.9 million people (2022). In relation to 2014, when the estimate had been 10.5 million people, the increase was of 22.6%.

The average annual number of self-employed workers added up to 25.5 million in 2022, a rise of 2.6% in the year. Compared with 2012, when that contingent was the lowest one in the time series (20.1 million), it rose 27,3% (more 5.5 million people).

In 2022, the average annual number of domestic workers grew 12.2%, reaching 5.8 million people.

The average annual informality rate changed from 40.1% in 2021 to 39.6% in 2022. Despite the reduction, the rate still surpassed the beginning of the time series in 2016 (38.6%) and 2020 (38.3%).

The average annual value of the usual real earnings was estimated at R$2,715, a value 1.0% lower (- R$28) than that estimated for 2021. Compared with 2012, it increased 1.3%.

The average annual value of the usual real wage bill reached R$261.3 billion, the highest value in the time series, with a rise of 6.9% (more R$16.9 billion) in relation to 2021. Between 2012 and 2022, the wage bill grew 12.6%.

Unemployment rate – Brazil – annual average (%)

Average annual employed population by activity group 2022

Among the activities, only Agriculture, livestock, forestry, fishery and aquaculture registered a percentage drop in the employed population (-1.6%) and recorded 8.7 million workers in 2022. In relation to 2012, when that group hit 10.2 million people, the drop was of 15.1% (less 1.5 million people).

Other services was the activity with the highest percentage of increase in the employed population (17.8%) between 2021 and 2022, changing from 4.4 to 5.2 million workers. In the first year of the time series, that activity counted with 3.8 million people, which pointed out to an increase of 36.4% (more 1.4 million people) in ten years.

The group formed by the activities of Lodging and food also reported an important growth in 2022 (15.8%) and, as a result, its contingent stayed at 5.3 million workers. Compared with 2012, that group increased 39.5% (more 1.5 million people).

Trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles accumulated a gain of 9.4% (more 1.6 million people) in the comparison between 2021 and 2022. Its employed population was estimated at 18.9 million people in 2022. In relation to 2012, it grew 12.6% (more 2.1 million people).

The overall industry in Brazil registered, in the year of 2022, 12.6 million workers, corresponding to an increase of 6.3% (more 753 thousand people) in relation to 2021. Despite the recent increase, the overall industry lost 842 thousand workers between 2014 and 2022.

In 2022, the group of Transportation, storage and mailing counted with 5.2 million workers, growing 9.9% (more 464 thousand people) in relation to 2021.

Public administration, defense, social security, education, human health and social services counted with 17.1 million workers in 2022, growing 5.8% (more 941 thousand people) in relation to 2021. Compared with 2012, that activity accumulated a growth of 19.9%.

Keywords: Retrospectiva PNAD Contínua | Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua - Divulgação Trimestral