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Regional Accounts: GDP rose in 22 states in 2019

November 12, 2021 10h00 AM | Last Updated: November 18, 2021 07h57 PM

In 2019, the Brazilian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) advanced 1.2%, with growth in 22 out of 27 Federation Units and drop in four of them: Espírito Santo (-3.8%), Pará (-2.3%), Piauí (-0.6%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (-0.5%). The GDP remained stable in Minas Gerais.

Tocantins registered the highest growth (5.2%), followed by Mato Grosso (4.1%), Roraima (3.8%), Santa Catarina (3.8%) and Sergipe (3.6%). Thirteen Federation Units recorded growth rates above the Brazilian average (1.2%).

The North Region was the region with the lowest growth (0.5%), though two of its five states posted the highest growth rates of the GDP. The Central-West (2.1%) registered the highest change. Among its four states, only the GDP of Mato Grosso do Sul (-0.5%) recorded a change below the national average.

The share of São Paulo in the Brazilian GDP slightly rose, after dropping for two years, changing from 31.6% in 2018 to 31.8% in 2019.

In 2019, the per capita GDP in Brazil reached R$35,161.70. The Federal District remained as the highest per capita GDP in Brazil (R$90,742.75), nearly 2.6 times the Brazilian per capita GDP. Only states in the Southeast, South and Central-West appeared among the 10 highest per capita GDPs in Brazil.

This information is from the Regional Accounts 2019, produced by the IBGE in partnership with State Statistical Organizations, State Government Departments and the Superintendence of the Manaus Free Trade Zone (SUFRAMA).

GDP from the perspective of demand 
Federation Units GDP Change in volume of Gross Value Added (%)
Current value (R$ 1,000,000) Participation (%) Relative position of the change in volume  Change in volume  (%) Total Agriculture Industry Services
Tocantins 39,355.9 0,5 1 5,2 5,2 31,4 -4,2 2,2
Mato Grosso 142,122.0 1,9 2 4,1 3,9 11,5 1,3 2,0
Roraima 14,292.2 0,2 3 3,8 3,6 4,9 3,4 3,6
Santa Catarina 323,263.9 4,4 4 3,8 3,4 -1,2 2,0 4,3
Sergipe 44,689.5 0,6 5 3,6 3,6 33,2 6,3 1,4
Amapá 17,496.7 0,2 6 2,3 1,9 0,9 1,6 1,9
Amazonas 108,181.1 1,5 7 2,3 1,8 -8,4 1,4 3,3
Goiás 208,672.5 2,8 8 2,2 2,1 1,4 2,9 1,9
Ceará 163,575.3 2,2 9 2,1 1,9 9,8 1,7 1,5
Distrito Federal 273,613.7 3,7 10 2,1 1,9 1,2 4,1 1,8
Alagoas 58,963.7 0,8 11 1,9 2,2 15,4 -2,9 0,0
São Paulo 2,348,338.0 31,8 12 1,7 1,5 0,1 -0,2 2,0
Rio Grande do Norte 71,336.8 1,0 13 1,4 1,3 5,5 -0,7 1,6
13 FUs with changes of GDP above that of Brazil  3,813.901.3 51,6   2,1 1,9 5,4 0,5 2,1
Brazil 7,389,131.0     1,2 1,0 0,4 -0,7 1,5
14 FUs with changes of GDP below that of Brazil 3,575,29.7 48,4   0,3 0,0 -2,8 -1,7 0,8
Pernambuco 197,853.4 2,7 14 1,1 0,8 7,5 0,5 0,5
Rio Grande do Sul 482,464.2 6,5 15 1,1 0,8 3,0 0,2 0,8
Rondônia 47,091.3 0,6 16 1,0 0,8 0,2 1,7 0,7
Paraná 466,377.0 6,3 17 0,9 0,6 -8,5 2,2 1,3
Bahia 293,240.5 4,0 18 0,8 0,6 -6,9 0,1 1,6
Maranhão 97,339.9 1,3 19 0,7 0,6 1,6 0,9 0,3
Paraíba 67,986.1 0,9 20 0,6 0,6 1,3 -2,2 1,1
Rio de Janeiro 779,927.9 10,6 21 0,5 0,5 -2,4 4,7 -0,9
Acre 15,630.0 0,2 22 0,2 -0,2 -12,7 -2,9 1,4
Minas Gerais 651,872.7 8,8 23 0,0 -0,5 -3,6 -6,8 2,2
Mato Grosso do Sul 106,943.2 1,4 24 -0,5 -0,8 -6,1 -0,1 0,7
Piauí 52,780.8 0,7 25 -0,6 -0,7 -4,5 1,9 -0,6
Pará 178,377.0 2,4 26 -2,3 -3,0 0,3 -13,2 1,7
Espírito Santo 137,345.6 1,9 27 -3,8 -4,2 -2,9 -15,9 1,6
Source: IBGE, em parceria com os Órgãos Estaduais de Estatística, Secretarias Estaduais de Governo e Superintendência da Zona Franca de Manaus - SUFRAMA

In 13 Federation Units, volume rose above the national average (1.2%): Tocantins (5.2%), Mato Grosso (4.1%), Roraima (3.8%), Santa Catarina (3.8%), Sergipe (3.6%), Amapá (2.3%), Amazonas (2.3%), Goiás (2.2%), Ceará (2.1%), Federal District (2.1%), Alagoas (1.9%), São Paulo (1.7%) and Rio Grande do Norte (1.4%).

In Tocantins, there was an increase of 278.2% in Forestry, fishing and aquaculture, but Trade and repair of motor vehicles also increased.

In Mato Grosso, Agriculture, including support to agriculture and post-harvesting increased 12%, having become the activity with biggest contribution to the state economy in 2019, a performance based on upland cotton and soybean crops.

In Roraima the rise of GDP was driven by Administration, defense, education and public health and social security and Trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles.

In Santa Catarina, the highlights were Trade and repair of vehicles and Professional, scientific and technical and administrative activities (with an increase of 7.5%, each).

In Sergipe, GDP grew 3.6% in 2019, after a decreaseof 1.8% in 2018. This increase was driven by Agriculture, including support to agricuture and post-harvesting, and Electricity and gas, water and sewage, management of residue and decontamination.

In fourteen Federation Units GDP recorded an increase below the national average

The increase of GDP in volume was below the national average (1.2%) in 14 Federation Units The smallest changes in volume were those of Espírito Santo (-3.8%), Pará (-2.3%), Piauí (-0.6%), Mato Grosso do Sul (-0.5%) and Minas Gerais (0.0%).

In Espírito Santo and Pará, the reduction in volume was directly related to mining and quarrying industry, since both recorded a decrease in the extraction of iron ore. The state of Piauí recorded a decrease, mainly in Agriculture, including support to agriculture and post-harvesting and in Trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles.

The lower result in Mato Grosso do Sul resulted from the reuced production chain of pulp, a relevant segment in the state’s economy, and from the negative impacts of soybean crops and of raising of cattle and hogs and pigs.

In Minas Gerais, stability also reflected the scenario of reduction of iron ore extraction, besides the impact on Agriculture, due to the negative biennual cycle of coffee.

North and South Regions increase their participation in GDP, whereas Northeast and Southeast record decreases

Between 2018 and 2019, the North (0.2 p.p.) and South (0.1 p.p.) increased their participation in the Brazilian ecnomy, whereas the Northeast (-0.1 p.p.) and Southeast (-0.1 p.p.) recorded decreases. The Central West kept its level of participation.

The North Region went from 5.5% to 5.7%, a relative increase influenced by the states of Pará and Amazonas, in which the former had a nominal increase of gross value added of mining and quarrying industries, despite the reduction in volume, due to the rise of iron ore prices and the reduction of coss in the same activity; the latter recorded an increase in et of suvsidies, on products. .

The South rose from 17.1% to 17.2%, with expansion in Santa Catarina, which, as observed in its performance in volume, had as a highlight Trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles and in manufacturing industries.

The participation of the national GDP remains as the biggest one, but fell from 53.1% to 53.0%, influenced by Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. Economy in the state of Rio de Janeiro reduced its participattio due to the activities of Construction, Manufacturing industries, besides services of Trade and repair of motor vehicles and Information and communication.

In Espírito Santo, there was a decrease of extraction of iron ore in Mining and quarrying industries and reduction on value added of Manufacturing industries, mainly in the production of pulp and basic metals. Also, the negative biennial cycle of coffee affected agriculture of the state.

Participation of São Paulo in GDP increases again after two years of decrease

After recording the biggest decrease in participation among the Federation Units for two consecutive years, São Paulo recored an increase in participation, from 31.6% to 31.8% from 2018 and 2019.

The biggest increases of gross value added of economy in the state of São Paulo came from the group of services, among which are: Financial activities, insurance and related services; Trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles and professional, scientific, technical and administrative activities and complementary services.

In the ranking of participation of GDP, there was a change in positions between the states of Amazonas and Mato Grosso do Sul, which, in 2019 were in the 15th and 16th positions, respectively.

São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais remain in the first three positions in the ranking. Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina followed. Other major state economies in the list are Bahia (7th), Federal District (8th), Goiás (9th) and Pernambuco (10th).

From 2002 to 2019, Mato Grosso recorded the biggest increase among all Federation Units

From 2002 to 2019, GDP in Brazil increased by 2.3% in the year The average annual rate of Mato Grosso was the highest among all the 27 Federaion Units: 5.0% a year. It was followed by figures in Tocantins (4.9% a year), Roraima (4.2% a year), Rondônia and Piauí (3.8% a year, both).

The performance of Mato Grosso wasclosely linked to agriculture, due to cotton crops and livestock. In Tocantins, besides agriculture, the highlights were advances in Mining and quarrying industry and Trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles. In roraima, the increase was observed, above all, in Administration, defense, education and public health and social security, besides the impact of trade.

Another highlight is the performance of Electricity and gas, water, sewage, management of residue and deconamination among the main changes in terms of cumulative volume in the series for Piauí, Roraima, Rondônia and Mato Grosso. The rise in Piauí was due to wind energy, and Rondônia, Roraima and Mato Grosso had new hydroelectric plants opened in the period.

Considering all the states in the North and Central West, GDP rose above the national average. In the Northeast, only Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe below this average.

In the Southeast, Espírito Santo was the only Federation Unit to record a change about the national average, with an increase of 2.5% per year. In the South Region, Santa Catarina also recorded an increase by 2.5% per year, whereas Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul had performances below average.

Rio Grande do Sul (1.7% per year) and Rio de Janeiro (1.3% per year) were the Federation Units accounting for the lowest average changes in the series. In southern states, the performance was linked to manufacturing industries, the activity with te biggest participation in the state economy, which recorded a negative cumulative change. In Rio de Janeiro, the highlight were negative changes in manufacturing industries and Trade and the change in mining and quarrying industries, which, altough positive, was lower than theaverage national increase of the activity. .

GDP per capita for the Federal District exceeds R$ 90 thousand

Per capita GDP in Brazil was R$35,161.70 in 2019, having changed 4.7% in value over 2018 (R$33,593,82). The Federal District kept the highest per capita GDP in Brazil (R$90,742.75), nearly 2.6 times the Brazilian per capita GDP.

In the Southeast, São Paulo is in the second position: Rio de Janeiro, in the third; Espírito Santo, in the nointh; and Minas Gerais, in the 10th position. Among the Federation Units, Federal District, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro were the only ones to keep their positions throughout the entire series. Among the first 10 positions in 2019, Minas Gerais went up three positions against 2002, whereas Mato Grosso, four, and Espírito Santo fell from the seventh to the ninth position.

In the South Region, Santa Catarina is in the fourth position among the main GDPs per capita in the country. Rio Grande do Sull is in the fifth position and Paraná, in the sixth one.

In the Central West, the biggest relative increase between 2002 and 2019 was that of Mato Grosso: from the 11th to the seventh position. GDP per capita of Mato Grosso do Sul also surpassed the national average in 2019, but the state kept in the eighth position. Goiás was the only state in the Region with GDP per capita below the national average in the entire series and fell from the 10th to the 11th position in the period.

Northeastern states have lowest GDP figures per capita

Among the states with lowest GDP per capita in 2019, Piauí and Maranhão were in the 26th and 27th positions, respectively. Below the 20th position in the ranking are - almost exclusively - northeastern states - with Acre as the only exception, in the 23rd position.

In the North, Rondônia was the state in the highest position (12th), with a GDP per capita ration of 0.8 in 2019, and Tocantins recorded the biggest advance, having gone from the 21st to the 14th position in the period. Amazonas, in spite of being in the 13th position in 2019, ahead of Tocantins, has recorded a decrease of the GDP per capita ratio throughout the series and has fallen by foru positions since 2002.

Participation of worker’s compensation falls for the third year in a row

In the analysis of GDP from the perspective of demand, the participation of worker’s compensation, main component of income, fell for the third year in a row, with a change from 43.6% in 2018 to 43.5% in 2019. This reduction was due to the nominal increase of compensation (14.8%), below taxes net of subsidies on production and imports (23.4%) and gross operating surplus added to gross mixed income (19.2%).

The Northeast and the Central West were the Major Regions accounting for the reduction in participation of worker’s compensation, with nominal changes of 4.6% and 4.2%, respectively. In the Central West, worker’s compensation fell in participation in GDP (from 47.1% in 2018 to 46.7% in 2019), but still account for the biggest participation in the GDP of this Major Region, due to public administration services of the Federal District.

In the Northeast, although compensation increased its participation in national GDP, the Major Region had its contribution reduced, since it represented 15.3% in 2018 and went to 15.2% of the total compensation in 2019. Piauí and Ceará (5.8% and 5.9%, respectively) were the only staes in the Northeast with rise of worker’s compensation above the national average (5.3%).

The states of the North and Northeast account for the biggest participation in worker’s compensation. In Acre, Roraima, Amapá and Paraíba this participation surpassed 50% of GDP, due to the contribution of services, notably public services, in the economy.

In the Northeast, Alagoas, with a contribution from worker’s compensation by 44.1% in 2019, that was the only Federation Unit where this component did not reach the highest relative figure of GDP - weight of gross operating surplus added to gross mixed income (45.1%).

The South Region, second biggest one in terms of participation in GDP, was a highlight in terms of the relative balance among the following components: worker’s compensation (41.8%) and gross operating surplus added to gross mixed income (43.0%).

Santa Catarina was the inly state in the South where participation of worker’s (43.6%) overcame the national average (43.5%) in 2019, despite the biggest participation of industry, a group with most intensive activities in state economy, in terms of capital, compared to Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul.