IPCA up 1.16% in September

October 08, 2021 09h00 AM | Last Updated: October 14, 2021 11h05 AM

The Extended National Consumer Price Index (IPCA) in September rose 1.16%, 0.29 percentage points (pp) above the 0.87% rate registered in August. This was the biggest change for a month of September since 1994, when the index was 1.53%. In the year, the IPCA accumulates an increase of 6.90% and, in the last 12 months, of 10.25%, above the 9.68% observed in the previous 12 months.

Period Rate
September 2021 1.16%
August 2021 0.87%
September 2020 0.64%
Cumulative in the year 6.90%
Cumulative in the last 12 months 10.25%

Of the nine groups of products and services surveyed, eight rose in September. The biggest impact (0.41 pp) and the highest change (2.56%) came from Housing, which accelerated over August (0.68%). Next came Transportation (1.82%) and Food and Beverages (1.02%), whose impacts were of 0.38 pp and 0.21 pp, respectively. Those three groups contributed together with nearly 86% of the results in September (1.0 pp of a total 1.16).  The other groups stood between the drop of 0.01% of Education and the rise of 0.90% of Household articles.

Group Change (%) Impact (pp)
August September August September
Overall Index 0.87 1.16 0.87 1.16
Food and Beverages 1.39 1.02 0.29 0.21
Housing 0.68 2.56 0.11 0.41
Household articles 0.99 0.90 0.04 0.04
Wearing apparel 1.02 0.31 0.04 0.01
Transportation 1.46 1.82 0.31 0.38
Health and Personal Care -0.04 0.39 -0.01 0.05
Personal Expenses 0.64 0.56 0.06 0.06
Education 0.28 -0.01 0.02 0.00
Communication 0.23 0.07 0.01 0.00
Source: IBGE. Diretoria de Pesquisas. Coordenação de Índices de Preços

The result of Housing (2.56%) was influenced mainly by the rise of electricity (6.47%). In September, the Water Scarcity flag entered into effect, adding R$14.2 in the bills for each 100 kWh consumed. In August, the flag in effect was the red one, level 2, in which the increase is lower ( of R$9.492 for the same 100 kWh). Besides, there were tariff increases in the following coverage areas: Belém (9.43%) – increase of 8.92%, in effect on August 7; Vitória (.35%) – increase of 9.60%, in effect since August 7 ; São Luís (6.33%) – increase of 2.20%, in effect on August 28.

In Housing the other highlight is the positive change of the water and sewage fees (0.37%), resulting from the rises of 11.93% in Recife (8.07%) in effect since August 19 and of 9.07% in one of the concessionaires of Porto Alegre (2.30%), in effect since August 14. In Belo Horizonte (-1.77%), there was reduction due to the methodological change in the tariffs, occurred in August 1st. In the subitem piped gas (0.29%), the rise is due to adjustments of 5.71% in Rio de Janeiro (0.54%) and of 10.80% in Curitiba (0.98%), both of them in force since August 1st. The prices of bottled gas (3.91%) also increased and accumulate rise of 34.67% in the last 12 months.

The group of Transportation (1.82%) accelerated in relation to August, when it changed 1.46%. Once again, the major contribution (0.18 pp) came from fuels, which increased 2.43%, influenced by the rises in gasoline (2.32%) and ethanol (3.79%). Besides, vehicle gas (0.68%) and diesel fuel (0.67%) also presented positive change.

In Transportation, the highlights are the increases of 28.19% in airfares, after the 10.69% drop registered in August, and of 9.18% in application cars, whose prices had already increased 3.06% in the previous month. New cars (1.58%), used cars (1.60%) and motorcycles (0.63%) remain on the rise and jointly contributed with 0.08 pp to the IPCA of September. Finally, it is worth mentioning the 0.19% high in intercity buses, which is due, in particular, to the increase ranging from 11% to 13% in effect in Fortaleza (6.55%) since September 3.

The group Food and beverages (1.02%) had a lower change than in August (1.39%). Products for food at home rose 1.19%, compared to the result of 1.63% in the previous month. Among the highs, the highlights were fruits (5.39%), which contributed 0.05 pp to the September index, ground coffee (5.50%), whole chicken (4.50%) and chicken pieces (4.42%). In addition, there were also high prices for sweet potatoes (20.02%), potatoes (6.33%), tomatoes (5.69%) and cheese (2.89%). On the other hand, there was a decline in the prices of onions (-6.43%), French roll (-2.00%) and rice (-0.97%). Meat prices (-0.21%) also dropped in September, after 7 consecutive months of high, accumulating a 24.84% change in the last 12 months.

Food away also decelerated, from 0.76% in August to 0.59% in September. The main factor that led to this deceleration was the negative change registered in the snack subitem (-0.35%), which had risen 1.33% in the previous month. Meals, in turn, increased by 0.94%, above the 0.57% observed in August. In addition, the prices of beer (1.32%) and soft drinks and mineral water (1.41%) also rose.

All surveyed areas presented increase in September. The highest index was registered in the municipality of Rio Branco (1.56%), influenced by increases in the prices of electricity (6.09%) and new cars (3.57%). The lowest result occurred in Brasília (0.79%), due to the drop in gasoline prices (-0.81%) and vehicle insurance (-3.36%).

Area Weight by area (%) Change (%) Cumulative change (%)
August Septemebr Year 12 months
Rio Branco 0.51 0.54 1.56 8.16 12.37
Curitiba 8.09 1.21 1.54 9.39 13.01
Porto Alegre 8.61 0.71 1.53 7.79 11.35
Belo Horizonte 9.69 0.43 1.34 6.47 10.30
Campo Grande 1.57 0.89 1.25 7.67 11.25
Vitória 1.86 1.30 1.24 7.93 11.52
Fortaleza 3.23 0.43 1.22 7.84 11.19
Rio de Janeiro 9.43 0.66 1.22 5.65 8.74
Aracaju 1.03 0.65 1.19 6.92 9.29
Salvador 5.99 0.70 1.11 6.81 9.54
Recife 3.92 0.66 1.10 7.00 10.00
Belém 3.94 0.75 1.04 6.44 9.86
São Luís 1.62 0.82 1.01 6.63 11.27
São Paulo 32.28 1.04 1.01 6.47 9.73
Goiânia 4.17 1.05 0.81 6.54 10.29
Brasília 4.06 1.40 0.79 6.39 9.06
Brazil 100.00 0.87 1.16 6.90 10.25
Source: IBGE. Diretoria de Pesquisas. Coordenação de Índices de Preços

In order to estimate the index of the month, the prices collected from August 28 to September 29, 2021 (reference) were compared with the prices in force from July 29 to August 27, 2021 (base). The IPCA has been calculated by the IBGE since 1980. It refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 40 minimum wages, whatever the source. It encompasses ten metropolitan areas in Brazil, besides the municipalities of Goiânia, Campo Grande, Rio Branco, São Luís, Aracaju and Brasília.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the IBGE suspended the face-to-face price collection on March 18, 2020. As of this date, prices began to be collected through other means, such as surveys on Internet sites, by phone or email. In the beginning of July 2021, the IBGE gradually resumed onsite data collection at some establishments, as provided for in Ordinance no. 207/2021 of the Presidency of the IBGE.

INPC up 1.20% in September

The National Consumer Price Index (INPC) increased 1.20% in September, 0.32 pp above August’s result (0.88%). This was the highest figure for September since 1994, when it stood at 1.40%. The cumulative index in the year stayed at 7.21% and, in the last 12 months, at 10.78%, above the rate of 10.42% registered in the 12 previous months. In September 2020, the rate was 0.87%.

Food products increased 0.94% in September, standing below the change of August (1.29%) Non-food products rose 1.28%, whereas they had recorded 0.75% in August.

All areas recorded positive changes in September. The lowest index was seen in the municipality of Goiânia (0.79%), where the impact of meat prices was significant (-1.65%). The highest index was in the metropolitan area of Curitiba (1.65%), influenced by the rise in the prices of electricity (6.80%) and gasoline (4.91%).

Area Weight by area (%) Change (%) Cumulative Change (%)
August September Year 12 months
Curitiba 7,37 1,13 1,65 9,82 13,81
Porto Alegre 7,15 0,84 1,48 8,32 12,07
Belo Horizonte 10,35 0,53 1,39 6,62 10,67
Rio Branco 0,72 0,49 1,35 7,93 12,24
Rio de Janeiro 9,38 0,63 1,35 6,01 9,60
Campo Grande 1,73 0,87 1,31 7,82 11,77
Vitória 1,91 1,55 1,28 8,16 12,04
Fortaleza 5,16 0,43 1,24 7,98 11,51
Salvador 7,92 0,76 1,13 7,09 9,87
São Paulo 24,60 1,13 1,10 7,28 10,91
Aracaju 1,29 0,58 1,03 6,76 9,00
Recife 5,60 0,73 1,00 7,11 10,26
São Luís 3,47 0,78 0,98 6,34 10,90
Belém 6,95 0,82 0,95 6,16 8,85
Brasília 1,97 1,60 0,90 7,11 10,08
Goiânia 4,43 1,08 0,79 5,96 9,82
Brazil 100,00 0,88 1,20 7,21 10,78
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços

In order to estimate the index of the month, the prices collected from August 28 to September 28, 2021 (reference) were compared with the prices in force from July 29 to August 27, 2021 (base). The INPC has been calculated by the IBGE since 1979. It refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 5 minimum wages, with a salaried head of the household. It encompasses ten metropolitan areas in Brazil, besides the municipalities of Goiânia, Campo Grande, Rio Branco, São Luís, Aracaju and Brasília.

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