Quarterly Continuous PNAD: unemployment drops in four of the 27 FUs in Q2 2021

August 31, 2021 09h00 AM | Last Updated: September 02, 2021 09h19 PM

 Unemployment rate in the 2nd quarter of 2021 was 14.1%, with a decrease of 0.6 percentage points (p.p.) in comparison with the 1st quarter of 2021 (14.7%) and increase from the 2nd quarter of 2020 (13.3%).

Against the previous quarter, unemployment rate fell in four Federation Units, being leveled off in the other ones. Amazonas (-1.9 p.p.), Espírito Santo (-1.5 p.p.), Rio de Janeiro (-1.5 p.p) and Minas Gerais (-1.3 p.p.) recorded decreases. The highest unemployment rates were those of Pernambuco (21.6%), Bahia (19.7%), Sergipe (19.1%) and Alagoas (18.8%). The lowest unemployment rates were reported by Santa Catarina (5.8%), Rio Grande do Sul (8.8%), Paraná (9.1%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (9.9%), which were below 10.0%.

Unemployment rate reached 11.7% among men and 17.1% among women and was below the average among white persons (11.7%) and above among black (16.6%) and brown ones (16.1%). The rate of persons with incomplete higher education (16.5%) was way above that of persons with a higher education degree (7.5%).

The compound rate of labor underutilization percentage of unemployed persons, time-related underemployed persons or persons in the potential workforce in relation to the extended workforce - was 28.6%. Piauí (46.6%), Maranhão (46.3%) and Sergipe 944.1%) accounted for the highest rates; Santa Catarina (10.6%), Mato Grosso (15.0%) and Rio Grande do Sul (17.7%), for the lowest.

The number of discouraged persons was 5.6 million and most of them were in Bahia (715 thousand discouraged persons, or 12.8% of the national total).

The percentage of discouraged persons in workforce or discouraged was 5.2%. Maranhão (19.7%) and Alagoas (16.5%) registered the biggest percentages and Santa Catarina (0.9%), Rio Grande do Sul (1.3%) and Mato Grosso, the lowest.

The percentage of those employed with a formal contract was 75.1% of the total number of persons employed in the private sector in Brazil. The biggest percentages were those of Santa Catarina (90.0%), Rio Grande do Sul (84.3%), Paraná (82.5%) and São Paulo (82.4%) and the smallest, of Maranhão (49.2%), Pará (53.1%), Bahia (56.0%) and Sergipe (56.6%).

The percentage of  self-employed personsin Brazil was 28.3%. The biggest percentages were those of Amapá (37.7%), Amazonas (36.7%) and Pará (35.4%) and the smallest, of the Federal District (21.4%), São Paulo (24.9%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (25.5%).

Informality rate in Brazil stayed at 40.6% of the employed population. The highest rates were those of Pará and Maranhão, both with 60.5%, and the lowest, of Santa Catarina (26.9%) and Federal District (30.7%).

In Brazil, average usual real earnings in Q2 2021 amounted to R$ 2,515, with a decrease both against Q1 2021 (R$ 2,594) and in relation to the same quarter a year ago (R$ 2,693). Among the Federation Units, against the previous month, Rio Grande do Sul was the only one to record a significant change (-5.2%). In comparison with the same quarter in 2020, eight Federation Units recorded a decrease, with a highlight to Amazonas (-16.4%) and Ceará (-14.1%).

Unemployment rate falls in four Federation Units in Q2 2021

Against the previous quarter, the unemployment rate fell in Amazonas (-1.9 percentage points), Espírito Santo (-1.5 p.p.), Rio de Janeiro (-1.5 p.p) and Minas Gerais (-1.3 p.p.), with stability in the other Federation Units.

Against the same quarter in 2020, four Federation Units recorded increases, Pernambuco (6.5 p.p.), Amapá (5.0 p.p.), Pará (4.3 p.p.) and Ceará (2.9 p.p.), and one, Santa Catarina (2,9 p.p.), recorded a decrease. The other Federation Units were leveled off.

Unemployment rate by Federation Unit against the previous moving quarter (%) - Q2 2021

Piauí has highest underutilization rate (46.6%) and Santa Catarina, the lowest (10.6%)

In the 2nd quarter of 2021, the compound rate of labor underutilization - percentage of unemployed persons or time-related underemployed persons or persons in the potential workforce in relation to the extended workforce - was 28.6%. Piauí (46.6%) recorded the highest rate, followed by Maranhão (46.3%) and Sergipe (44.1%). The lowest rates were those of Santa Catarina (10.6%), followed by Mato Grosso (15.0%) and Rio Grande do Sul (17.7%).

Taxa composta de subutilização da força de trabalho por UF (%) – 2° trimestre de 2021

Amapá had the biggest proportion of sel-employed persons (37.7%) and the Federal District, the smallest (21.4%)

The percentage of self-employed persons in the country in Q2 2021 was 28.3%. The North (34.3%) and Northeast (32.2%) recorded the highest percentages. Amapá recorded the highest percentage (37.7%), followed by Amazonas (36.7%) and Pará (35.4%). The Federal District (21.4%), São Paulo (24.9%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (25.5%) recorded the lowest rates.

Percentage of self-employed workers, by Federation Unit (%) - Q2 2021
UF Value
Federal District 21.4
São Paulo 24,9
Mato Grosso do Sul 25.5
Minas Gerais 25.8
Santa Catarina 25.8
Tocantins 26.6
Rio Grande do Sul 26.7
Goiás 27.2
Alagoas 27.6
Paraná 28.1
Brazil 28,3
Espírito Santo 28.9
Rio de Janeiro 29.1
Sergipe 29.3
Rio Grande do Norte 29.5
Mato Grosso 29.6
Acre 31.3
Bahia 31.3
Rondônia 31.4
Roraima 31.9
Ceará 32.2
Piauí 33.6
Pernambuco 33.9
Maranhão 34.7
Paraíba 34.8
Pará 35.4
Amazonas 36.7
Amapá 37.7

Maranhão has smallest percentage (49.2%) of workers with a formal contract; Santa Catarina, the biggest (90.0%)

In Q2 2021, 75.1% of the employees in the private sector had a formal labor contract. The North (60.1%) and Northeast (58.4%) had the lowest rates. Among domestic workers, 25,7% had a formal contract.

AThe Federation Units with the biggest percentage of workers with a formal contract in the private sector were Santa Catarina (90.0%), Rio Grande do Sul (84.3%), Paraná (82.5%) and São Paulo (82.4%). The smallest percentages were those of Maranhão (49.2%), Pará (53.1%) and Bahia (56.0%).

Percentage of persons WITH a formal contract among workers in the private sector, by Federation Units (%) - Q2 2021
UF Value
Maranhão 49.2
Pará 53.1
Bahia 56.0
Sergipe 56.6
Piauí 57.1
Paraíba 58.1
Ceará 58,4
Acre 63.1
Tocantins 63.1
Alagoas 63.7
Rio Grande do Norte 63,8
Pernambuco 65.2
Roraima 65.7
Amazonas 66.8
Amapá 67.8
Rondônia 69.7
Goiás 71.4
Espírito Santo 74.8
Brazil 75.1
Minas Gerais 75.2
Mato Grosso do Sul 76.6
Mato Grosso 76.8
Distrito Federal 79.0
Rio de Janeiro 80.4
São Paulo 82.4
Paraná 82.5
Rio Grande do Sul 84.3
Santa Catarina 90.0

Average earnings fell in the quarter

In Brazil, monthly average real earnings, usually earned by the employed population, was R$ 2,515, with a decrease both against Q1 2021 (R$ 2,594) and in relation to the same quarter in the previous year (R$ 2,693). Among the Federation Units, against the previous quarter, Rio Grande do Sul was the only one to record significant change (-5.2%). Against the same quarterin 2020, eight Federation Units recorded decreases, among which Amazonas (-16.4%) and Ceará (-14.1%) stand out.

The biggest increases were those of the Federal District (R$ 4,474), Rio de Janeiro (R$ 3,241) and São Paulo (R$ 3,096) and the smallest, of Maranhão (R$ 1,478), Piauí (R$ 1,508) and Alagoas (R$ 1,652)./p>

Pará and Maranhão have highest informality rate (60.5%) and Santa Cartarina, the lowest (26.9%)

Informality rate in Q2 2021 stayed at 40.6% of the employed population. The highest were those of Pará and Maranhão (60.5%), followed by Amazonas (59.7%) and Piauí (56.9%). The lowest were recorded by Santa Catarina (26.9%), Federal District (30.7%) and São Paulo (31.1%).

For the calculation of the informality rate of the employed population, the following populations are considered: Worker in the private sector without a formal employment contract; Domestic worker without a formal employment contract; Employer without a CNPJ register; Self-employed worker without a CNPJ register; Contributing family worker.

Informality rate of the employed population, by Federation Units (%) - Q2 2021
FU Value
Pará 60.5
Maranhão 60.5
Amazonas 59.7
Piauí 56.9
Bahia 55.1
Ceará 53.9
Paraíba 53.6
Sergipe 53.1
Pernambuco 51.4
Rondônia 49.5
Amapá 49.5
Roraima 49.1
Acre 48.9
Alagoas 47.8
Rio Grande do Norte 46.2
Tocantins 45.2
Goiás 41.7
Mato Grosso 41.4
Espírito Santo 41.0
Brazil 40.6
Minas Gerais 40.0
Mato Grosso do Sul 38.5
Rio de Janeiro 36.1
Paraná 33.7
Rio Grande do Sul 31.7
São Paulo 31.1
Distrito Federal 30.7
Santa Catarina 26.9