Continuous PNAD: Unemployment rate is 14.4% and labor underutilization is 29.2% in quarter ended in February

April 30, 2021 09h00 AM | Last Updated: May 03, 2021 06h39 PM

The unemployment rate (14.4%) of the moving quarter of December 2020 to February 2021 held steady over the quarter from September to November 2020 (14.1%) and had increase of 2.7 percentage points in relation to the same moving quarter of 2020 (11.6%).

Indicator/Period Dec-Jan-Feb 2021 Sept-Oct-Nov 2020 Dec-Jan-Feb 2020
Unemployment rate 14.4% 14.1% 11.6%
Underutilization rate 29.2% 29.0% 23.5%
Usual real earnings R$ 2,520 R$ 2,585 R$ 2,488
Change of the usual real earnings in relation to: -2.5% 1.3%

The unemployed population (14.4 million persons) is a record in the time series started in 2012, growing 2.9% (400 thousand more unemployed persons) over the quarter from September to November 2020 (14.0 million persons) and increasing 16.9% (2.1 more million persons) over the same moving quarter of the previous year (12.3 million persons).

The employed population (85.9 million persons) remained stable in relation to the previous moving quarter and fell 8.3% (7.8 less million persons) over the same quarter of 2020.

The employment-population ratio – percentage of employed persons at working age – was estimated at 48.6%, staying stable over the previous moving quarter (48.6%) and falling 5.9 pp over the same quarter of the previous year (54.5%).

The composite labor underutilization rate(29.2%) stood stable over the previous moving quarter (29.0%) and increased 5.7 pp against the same quarter in 2020 (23.5%).

The underutilized population (32.6 million persons) was stable against the previous moving quarter and grew 21.9% (5.9 million more persons) against the same quarter in 2020.

The population outside the labor force (76.4 million persons) stood stable against the previous quarter and grew 15.9% (10.5 million persons) over the same quarter of 2020.

The discouraged population (6.0 million persons) is a record in the time series, standing stable in relation to the previous moving quarter and growing 26.8% over the same period of 2020.

The percentage of discouraged workers in relation to the labor force (5.6%) stood stable over the previous quarter and rose 1.4 pp, in relation to the same period of 2020 (4.2%).

The number of workers with a labor contract in the private sector (except domestic workers) was 29.7 million persons, with stability over the previous quarter and decrease of 11.7% (3.9 million less persons) over the same period of 2020.

The number of workers without a formal contract in the private sector (9.8 million persons) remained stable in relation to the previous moving quarter and decreased 15.9% or 1.8 million less persons compared with the same quarter of 2020.

The number of self-employed workers (23.7 million) increased 3.1% over the previous moving quarter (716 thousand more persons) and fell 3.4% over the same period in 2020 (824 thousand less persons).

The category of domestic workers (4.9 million persons) stood stable over the previous quarter, but shrank 21.0% (-1.3 million persons) over the same period of 2020.

The informality rate hit 39.6%% of the employed population, or 34.0 million informal workers. This rate had been 39.1% in the previous moving quarter and 40.6% in the same quarter of 2020.

The usual real earnings (R$ 2,520) fell 2.5% in relation to the previous quarter and remained stable in relation to the same quarter of 2020. The usual real wage bill (R$ 211.2 billion) stood stable over the moving quarter from September to November 2020 and fell 7.4% over the same quarter of 2020 (R$ 16.8 less billion).

Unemployment Rate - Brazil - 2012/2021

In the moving quarter from December 2020 to February 2021, the workforce (employed and unemployed people), estimated at 100.3 million, grew 0.7% (721 thousand more persons) compared to the previous moving quarter and decreased by 5.4% (5.7 million less persons) compared to the same quarter of 2020.

The number of employed persons in all groups of activities was stable compared to the quarter from September to November 2020.

In comparison with the same moving quarter of 2020, there were reductions in seven groups: General Industry (10.8%, or 1.3 million less persons), Construction (9.2%, or 612 thousand  less persons), Trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (11.1%, or 2.0 million less persons), Transportation, storage and mail (12.2%, or 607 thousand  less persons), Lodging and food (27.4%, or 1.5 million  less persons), Other services (18.1%, or 917 thousand less persons) and Domestic services (20.6%, or 1.3 million  less persons). The remaining three groups showed stability.

The number of employers (3.9 million persons) was stable in relation to the previous moving quarter and decreased 12.5% (552 thousand less persons) compared to the same quarter of 2020.

The group of workers in the public sector (12.0 million persons), which includes statutory and military servants, was stable compared to the previous quarter and grew 5.1% (584 thousand more persons) compared to the same period of the previous year.

The number of time-related unemployed persons (6.9 million persons) was stable in relation to the previous quarter and grew by 6.3% (406 thousand more persons) compared to the same quarter of 2020.

Composite Labor Underutilization Rate - Quarters from December to February – 2012 to 2021 (%)

 

As for the average usual real earnings, two groups of activity showed decreases compared to the previous quarter: Lodging and food (6.8%, or R$ 105 less) and Information, Communication and Financial, Real Estate, Professional and Administrative Activities (5.2 %, or R$ 190 less). The remaining eight groups showed stability in this comparison.

Compared to the quarter from November 2019 to January 2020, there were declines in the income of four groups of activity: Construction (4.8%, or R$ 88 less), Transportation, storage and mailing (7.8%, or R$ 189 less), Lodging and food (9.7%, or R$ 154 less) and Domestic services (3.6%, or R$ 35 less). The only increase was in public administration, defense, social security, education, human health and social services (5.3%, or R$ 193 more). The remaining five groups showed stability.

Among the employment categories, compared to the previous quarter, there was a drop in the average real earnings of employers (11.0%, or R$ 739 less) and stability in the other categories. Compared to the same quarter of 2020, no employment categories had significant changes in income.