IPCA-15 stays at 0.60% in April

April 27, 2021 09h00 AM | Last Updated: April 28, 2021 04h10 PM

The Extended National Consumer Price Index 15 - IPCA-15 rose 0.60% in April, standing 0.33 percentage points (p.p.) below the March´s rate (0.93%).  The cumulative change in the year was 2.82% and the cumulative index in 12 months was 6.17%, above the rate of 5.52% recorded in the immediately previous 12 months. In April 2020, the rate was -0.01%.

Period Rate
April 2021 0.60%
March 2021 0.93%
April 2020 -0.01%
Cumulative in the year 2.82%
Cumulative in the last 12 months 6.17%

Among nine groups of products and services surveyed, seven rose in April. The biggest impact (0.36 p.p.) and the biggest change (1.76%) came from Transportation, which decelerated in relation to March (3.79%). The second biggest contribution (0.08 p.p.) came from Food and beverages (0.36%), followed by Housing (0.45%) and Health and personal care (0.44%), impacting 0.07 p.p. and 0.06 p.p., respectively.

The only group that dropped was Communication (-0.04%), whereas Education remained stable (0.00%). The other groups stood between the rate of 0.05% of Personal expenses and 0.55% of Household articles.

Group Monthly Change (%) Impact (p.p.)
March April March April
Overall Index 0.93 0.60 0.93 0.60
Food and beverages 0.12 0.36 0.03 0.08
Housing 0.71 0.45 0.11 0.07
Household articles 0.55 0.55 0.02 0.02
Wearing apparel 0.03 0.17 0.00 0.01
Transportation 3.79 1.76 0.76 0.36
Health and personal care 0.24 0.44 0.03 0.06
Peronal expenses 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.00
Education -0.51 0.00 -0.03 0.00
Communication 0.02 -0.04 0.00 0.00

Transportation decelerated (1.76%), reflecting the less intense rise of fuels (4.87%) in April. Having risen 11.18% in the March´s IPCA-15, the prices of gasoline increased 5.49%. Ethanol (1.46%) and diesel fuel (2.54%) also changed less than in the previous month (16.38% and 10.66%, respectively). In spite of the deceleration, gasoline remained as the item with the biggest individual impact on the month´s result, contributing with 0.30 p.p. or nearly 50% of the April´s index.

Still in Transportation, the result of the sub-item train (0.79%) was due to the adjustment of 6.38% in the fare in Rio de Janeiro (2.04%), in force since February 23.

After three consecutive drops in the prices, airfare (6.27%) rose once again. The prices of new cars (0.41%), used cars (0.80%) and tires (2.63%) remained rising. In contrast, the major drops were in voluntary car insurance (-3.14%), transportation through app (-3.55%) and car rental (-6.04%).

In the group of Food and beverages (0.36%), food at home changed from a drop of 0.03% in March to a rise of 0.19% in April, due to the result of French bread (1.73%) and long-life milk (1.75%), whose prices had retreated in the previous month
(-0.11% and -4.50%, respectively). Meat (0.61%) remained rising, though with a lower change than that in March (1.72%). The major negative impacts in this group came from carrots (-13.58%), potatoes (-5.03%), fruits (-2.91%) and rice (-1.44%).

In food away from home (0.79%), both snacks (1.34%) and meals (0.57%) accelerated over March, jointly contributing with 0.04 p.p. to the month´s result.

In the group of Housing (0.45%), the biggest impact (0.03 p.p.) came from bottled gas (2.49%), which accrued a rise of 20.22% over the last 12 months.

In electricity (0.47%), the change of 4.34% in Rio de Janeiro stood out, due to the adjustments of 4.66% and 4.50% in the concessionaires surveyed, both of them in force since March 15. The yellow tariff flag was maintained in April, adding R$1.343 to the fare at each 100 kilowatt-hour consumed.

The result of piped gas (0.20%), in turn, was a consequence of the adjustments of 8.07% and 15.57% in Curitiba (1.71%). While the first one went into force on February 1st, the second one was applied on February 16.

In Health and personal care (0.44%), the rise in health plan (0.66%) stood out, as well as pharmaceuticals (0.53%), which had dropped 0.29% in March. An adjustment of 10.08% in the prices of medicines was authorized on April 1st, depending on the therapeutic class.

Concerning the regional indexes, all the regions surveyed registered a positive change in April. The highest figure was reported in Brasília (0.98%), especially due to the rise in the price of gasoline (8.37%). The lowest change, in turn, was recorded in the metropolitan area of Belém (0.39%), influenced by the drop in the price of rice (-5.25%).

Area Regional Weight (%) Monthly Change (%)  Cumulative Change (%) 
March April Year 12 months
Brasília 4.84 1.44 0.98 3.41 6.53
Curitiba 8.09 1.22 0.88 3.48 6.98
Rio de Janeiro 9.77 0.52 0.83 2.62 5.51
Porto Alegre 8.61 1.00 0.63 3.17 6.47
Salvador 7.19 0.88 0.58 2.53 5.53
Belo Horizonte 10.04 1.09 0.57 3.17 6.76
Fortaleza 3.88 1.04 0.52 3.53 7.57
Goiânia 4.96 1.40 0.49 2.77 7.15
Recife 4.71 0.96 0.48 3.22 6.93
São Paulo 33.45 0.67 0.47 2.24 5.46
Belém 4.46 1.49 0.39 3.34 6.52
Brazil 100.00 0.93 0.60 2.82 6.17

In order to estimate the IPCA-15, prices were collected from March 16 to April 13, 2021 (reference) and compared with those in effect from February 12 to March 15, 2021 (base). The indicator refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 40 minimum wages and it encompasses the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife, São Paulo, Belém, Fortaleza, Salvador, Curitiba, as well as Brasília and Goiânia. The methodology is the same as the one used for the IPCA; the difference lies in the period of price collection and in the geographic coverage.