In 2020, slaughter of hogs and pigs and of chicken rises while cattle slaughter drops

March 18, 2021 09h00 AM | Last Updated: March 25, 2021 04h47 PM

After three years of growth, the slaughter of cattle fell 8.5% in 2020, reaching 29.7 million head. On the other hand, the slaughter of hogs and pigs increased by 6.4% and hit a new record, reaching 49.3 million head. The slaughter of chickens also rose: 3.3% in 2020 against 2019, totaling 6 billion head, a new record in the time series started in 1997.

The acquisition of milk increased by 2.1% and reached 25.5 billion liters, also a record in the time series. The acquisition of leather (30.8 million pieces) fell 7.4% in relation to 2019. Egg production increased 3% and reached 3.96 billion dozens, a new record in the time series started in 1987.

Slaughter of Animals, Acquisition of Milk, Acquisition of Rawhides and Production of Hen Eggs - Brazil - Q4 2020
Slaughter of Animals, Acquisition of Milk, Acquisition of Rawhide and Production of Hen Eggs 2019 2020 2020 Change (%)
Q4 Q3 Q4 3 / 1 3 / 2
1 2 3
Number of slaughtered animals (thousand head)
CATTLE 8 081 7 733 7 309 -9.6 -5.5
Oxen 4 769 4 704 4 674 -2.0 -0.7
Cows 2 086 1 865 1 564 -25.1 -16.2
Male calves 447 390 465 4.2 19.2
Female calves 779 773 606 -22.2 -21.6
 
HOGS AND PIGS 11 912 12 728 12 500 4.9 -1.8
 
CHICKEN 1 470 300 1 513 053 1 552 959 5.6 2.6
 
Carcass weight (metric tons)
CATTLE 2 093 377 2 062 515 1 970 408 -5.9 -4.5
Oxen 1 388 300 1 400 231 1 386 537 -0.1 -1.0
Cows 435 705 403 794 336 696 -22.7 -16.6
Male calves 111 754 98 703 120 051 7.4 21.6
Female calves 157 617 159 787 127 124 -19.3 -20.4
 
HOGS AND PIGS 1 060 277 1 172 007 1 120 852 5.7 -4.4
 
CHICKEN 3 389 362 3 477 967 3 567 401 5.3 2.6
 
Milk (thousand liters)
Acquired 6 671 938 6 488 896 6 747 822 1.1 4.0
Processed 6 663 429 6 482 073 6 742 858 1.2 4.0
 
Leather (thousand units)
Acquired (rawhide) 7 803 8 216 7 685 -1.5 -6.5
Tanned 7 800 7 610 7 673 -1.6 0,8
 
Eggs (thousand dozen)
Production 991 454 1 016 476 990 390 -0.1 -2.6
 
SOURCE: IBGE - Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Agropecuária - Pesquisa Trimestral do Abate de Animais, Pesquisa Trimestral do Leite, Pesquisa Trimestral do Couro e Pesquisa da Produção de Ovos de Galinha.
Note: Data relative to 2020 are preliminary.

After three years of highs, slaughter of cattle drops in 2020

In 2020, 29.7 million cattle head were slaughtered under some type of sanitary inspection (federal, state or municipal), a decrease of 8.5% in relation to 2019 after three years of upward trend in this activity.

June was the only month which showed positive change against 2019 (68.6 thousand head), while the sharpest decrease was recorded in April (-382.6 thousand head).In 2020 an increase was registered in the slaughter of male cattle in relation to female cattle, besides the record valuation of calves and the cattle arroba. Even though the slaughter has reduced, the export of cattle in natura achieved a new level in 2020, considering the time series of the Ministry of Economy’s Foreign Trade Secretariat.

There was decrease in 24 out of the 27 Federation Units and the sharpest slumps were in Mato Grosso (-573.6 thousand head), Mato Grosso do Sul (-346.1 thousand heads), Bahia (-237.2 thousand head) and Goiás (-220.3 thousand head). Santa Catarina was the only State with more than 1% of participation to record highs in cattle slaughter (59.5 thousand head).

In 2020, Mato Grosso continued on the top of the FU’s ranking in cattle slaughter, with 17.1% of the national participation, followed by Mato Grosso do Sul (10.9%) and São Paulo (10.5%). 

In the 4th quarter of 2020, 7.3 million head were slaughtered, a decrease of 9.6% against the 4th quarter of 2019 and 5.5% under the 3rd quarter of 2020. It is the lowest result for a 4th quarter since 2010.

With highs since 2005, slaughter of hogs and pigs increases 6.4% and achieves a new record number in 2020

In 2020, 49.3 million head of hogs and pigs were slaughtered, an increase of 6.4% (3.0 million head) in relation to 2019. In the time series started 1997, only in the transition between 2003 and 2004, the activity did not grow. As of 2005, it has started an upward trend, resulting in a new record in 2020.

Every month of 2020 recorded highs, against the previous year, and the highest was in June (568.2 million head). The year had a record number of exports of hogs and pigs in natura, as well as a significant product valuation.

In 11 out of the 25 Federation Units in the survey there were increases in slaughter. Among those with participation above 1%, increases were seen in: Santa Catarina (1.68 million head), Paraná (727.7 thousand head), Minas Gerais (235.7 thousand head), Mato Grosso do Sul (207.7 thousand head) and Mato Grosso (187.1 thousand head). On the other hand, the activity decreased in: Rio Grande do Sul (-79.0 thousand head), Goiás (-34.6 thousand head) and São Paulo (-4.4 thousand head).

Santa Catarina continued leading the slaughter of hogs and pigs in 2020, with 28.8% of the national slaughter, followed by Paraná (20.2%) and Rio Grande do Sul (16.9%).

In the 4th quarter of 2020, 12.5 million head of hogs and pigs were slaughtered, an increase of 4.9% against the same period of 2019 and a decrease in relation to the 3rd quarter of 2020. This was the best 4th quarter in the time series (1997). Since 2014, the number of the slaughtered head in the 4th quarter has been increasing when compared with the previous year. The export of hogs and pigs in natura also registered a record number for the period.

Chicken slaughter rises 3.3% and achieves the record number in 2020

In 2020, 6 billion chicken head were slaughtered, an increase of 3.3% (190.8 million head) in relation to 2019, a new record number in the time series started in 1997. In the comparison between the months in 2020 and 2019, there were decreases in May (-29.0 million head) and August (-177.0 thousand head) and increased in the other periods. The highlight was in March (61.7 million head) and December (53.2 million head). 

18 out of the 25 Federation Units recorded increases. Among those with participation above 1%, the increases were recorded in: Paraná (115.5 million head), Mato Grosso do Sul (21.8 million head), Minas Gerais (19.52 million head), São Paulo (16.8 million head), Goiás (8.6million head), Bahia (7.9 million head), Pernambuco (5.9 million head), Santa Catarina (2.7 million head) and Rio Grande do Sul (1.4 million head). On the other hand, the decreases were recorded in Mato Grosso (-11.1 million head) and Pará (-5.6 million head).

Paraná continued widely ahead in the FU’s ranking in the slaughter of chickens in 2020, with 33.4% of national participation, followed by Santa Catarina (13.7%) and Rio Grande do Sul (13.6%).

In the 4th quarter of 2020, 1.6 billion chicken head were slaughtered. This result meant growth of 5.6% in relation to the same period of 2019 and of 2.6% against the 3rd quarter of 2020, hitting a new record in the time series started in 1997. The performance of chicken exports did not stand out this period, which means that the greatest percentage of this increase was in domestic consumption.

 Milk acquisition increases 2.1% and reaches the highest number in the time series

In 2020, the dairy products under some type of sanitary inspection recorded 25.5 billion liters, an increase of 2.1% in comparison with 2019.The result influenced the sequence of positive results, noticed since 2017. Furthermore, it is a record number for an annual cumulative rate, considering the time series started in 1997. In the monthly comparison, the months which recorded negative changes in relation to 2019 were June (-34.9 million liters) and May (-25.9 million liters). On the other hand, the major positive change was recorded in February (129.9 million liters). In 2020 the change in the demand of dairy products due to the social distancing and the milk valuation stood out, followed by the increase in the sector prices.

In 14 out of 26 Federation Units in the Quarterly Survey of Milk, the milk volume increased. The major positive changes were recorded in Minas Gerais (224.3 million liters), Paraná (172.5 million liters), Santa Catarina (123.7 million liters), Bahia (103.0 million liters) and Sergipe (63.3 million liters). On the other hand, the decreases were recorded in 12 states, with Goiás registering the major result (-136.6 million liters).

Minas Gerais continued leading the FU’s ranking, with 25.5% of national participation, followed by Paraná (13.6%) and Rio Grande do Sul (13.0%).

Regarding the 4th quarter of 2020, raw milk acquisition was of 6.8 billion liters, an increase equivalent to 1.1% in relation to the 4th quarter of 2019, and 4.0% in comparison with the previous quarter.

Despite the economic impacts caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, this result was a record number considering all the quarters in the survey time series, started in 1997. The milk sector is distinguished by its cyclic behavior, by which the 4th quarter regularly presents the sharpest result in the production in relation to the previous quarter, leveraged by the harvest season in some of the main milk producers in the country.  The month with the highest result within the season was December, which recorded 2.3 billion liters.

Acquisition of leather falls 7.4% in 2020

In 2020, the tanneries surveyed by the Quarterly Survey of Leather - only tanneries that tan at least 5,000 whole units of raw cowhide per year. - declared to have received 30.8 million pieces of raw cowhide. This number was 7.4% lower than the previous year. In the monthly comparison in relation to the respective months, December was the only month to record positive changes (96.7 thousand pieces) while April recorded the major retraction (-606.4 thousand pieces). The reduction in cattle slaughter and the economic recession caused by the Covid-19 pandemic influenced the activity deceleration during this year.

In 15 out of 19 Federation Units with at least one active tanneries in the survey there was reduction in the reception of cattle hides. The major negative changes were recorded in São Paulo (-481.1 thousand pieces), Mato Grosso do Sul (-475.2 thousand pieces), Mato Grosso (-433.0 thousand pieces), Pará (-429.8 thousand pieces) and Rio Grande do Sul (-266.6 thousand pieces). On the other hand, the major increase was recorded in Paraná (219.4 thousand pieces).

In the FU’s ranking, Mato Grosso continued leading in 2020, with 16.5% of national participation, followed by Mato Grosso do Sul (13.4%) and São Paulo (11.2%).

In the 4th quarter of 2020, the tanneries declared to have received 7.7 million leather pieces, which represents a reduction of 1.5% in relation to the 4th quarter of 2019 and decrease of 6.5% against the 3th quarter of 2020. The restriction for animal slaughter noticed in the quarter also affected the activity.

Egg production grows 3% and reaches 4 billion dozen, a record number

The hen egg production was 3.96 billion dozen in 2020, presenting an increase of 3% in relation to 2019. Except for November (-3.1 million dozen) and October (-766 thousand dozen), the other periods increased in the monthly comparison between 2020 and 2019, highlighting February (20.1 million dozen). This result was influenced by the increase in the product consumption in the middle of a recession due to the pandemic, since it is a cheaper protein than meat. On the other hand, the cost of the sector production increased significantly.

18 out of 26 Federation Units with eligible chicken farms increased in production. The major increases were in São Paulo (25.3 million dozen), Santa Catarina  (16.0 million dozen), Bahia (13.8 million dozen), Mato Grosso do Sul (12.5 million dozen), Mato Grosso do Sul (11.8 million dozen) and Paraná (11.5 million dozen). Among the FUs with production decrease, the highlights were Goiás (-6.8 million dozen) and Minas Gerais (-6.7 million dozen).

São Paulo continues leading, with 28.9% of national production, followed by Paraná (9.1%), which represented an increase in production in relation to 2019, and overpassed the second and the third place, which decreased in 2020. The third highest production in the country was recorded in Espírito Santo (9.1%, close to the second place) and followed by Minas Gerais (8.9%). The Southeast Region continued responsible for almost half of egg production in Brazil: with 47% of the total amount of 2020.

By crossing the register information of chicken farms with the data reported in 2020, it was possible to account for the amount of chicken farms and eggs produced according to the purpose of the production (either consumption or incubation). It was noticed that half of the chicken farms (1,109 or 55.2%) produced eggs for consumption, with 80.7% of the total production of eggs, while 900 chicken farms (44.8%) produced eggs for incubation, accounting for 19.3% of the total amount produced.

In the 4th quarter of 2020, hen egg production was 990.4 million dozen in the 4th quarter of 2020. This amount was 0.1% lower than the equivalent quarter in 2019 and 2.6% lower than the previous quarter. The sector was influenced by the rise of prices of the inputs and the excessive offer, diminishing the costs for the consumer. Nevertheless, the 4th quarter of 2020 recorded the third highest production and the best December for the time series started in 1987.