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Gender Statistics: women’s employment is lower in households with children up to three years of age

March 04, 2021 10h00 AM | Last Updated: March 08, 2021 10h32 AM

In 2019, employment-population ratio among women aged 25 to 49 living in households with children up to three years of age reached 54,6%, versus 89.2% among men. In households without children in that age group, the employment population ratio was of 67.2% for women and 83.4% for men. The lowest employment-population ratio was found among black or brown women with children up to three years of age in the same household: 49.7%, in 2019. As for caring for other people or doing household tasks, women spent almost twice as much time than men: 21.4 hours per week versus 11. The proportion of part-time work (up to 30 hours per week) is also bigger: 29.6% for women and 15,6% for men.

In the population aged 25 years of age and over, 15.1% of the men and 19.4% of the women had a higher-education degree in 2019. However, women represented less than half (46.8%) of the professor working in higher-education institutions in Brazil. Women are a minority among undergraduate students in exact sciences and production: only 13.3% of the students enrolled in Computer Science and Information and Communication Technology programs are women, whereas they make up 88.3% in the fields of Welfare, which encompasses, for example, Social Services programs.

Despite receiving more education, women held only 37.4% of management positions and had 77.7% of men’s earnings.

In 2020, 14.8% of the federal deputies were women, the smallest proportion in South America and the 142nd in a ranking with data from 190 countries. In the elections of 2018, 32.2% of the persons running for federal office as a representative were women. Among campaigns with a revenue above R$ 1 million, only 18.0% were of women.

In 2020, among elected city councilors, 16% were women, and, among ministers, there were two women only. At state and district levels, in 2018, women made up 27.6% of the civil police officers.

Being used in the analysis of the femicide phenomenon (described in Law no. 13.104/2015), information about the place of occurrence shows that, in 2018, whereas 30.4 % of the homicides of women took place in the housing unit, whereas, among men, that proportion was 11.2%. In 2019, only 7.5% of the municipalities had a women’s police station.

In 2019, 2,1% of the marriages involved women up to 17 years of age. From 2011 to 2019, teenage fertility rate fell from 64 to 59 births per every 1,000 women, with the highest rates being recorded in the North region (84.5 births per every 1,000 women) and, by Federation Unit, in Amazonas (93.2)..

Data comes from the second edition of Gender Statistics: social indicators for women in Brazil, which analyzes a group of indicators proposed by the United Nations. The IBGE has compiled information from its own surveys and from external sources in order to produce this study.

In households with children aged up to 3, women's employment population ratio is lower

In 2019, women's rate of participation in workforce was 54.5%. Among men, that figure reached 73.7% - a difference of 19.2 percentage points. The rate measures the share of the population at working age taxa measures the population at working age (15 years old and over) in the workforce (that is, employed or looking for a job and available to work).

Among women aged 25 to 49 years of age who lived in households with children up to 3 years of age, about half (54,6%) were employed. In households without children in that age group, the employment population ratio of women was 67.2%. Employment population ratio among men is higher both in households with children up to three years of age (89,2%) and in those without children in that age group (83.4%)./p>

Black or brown women with children up to 3 years of age in the housing unit had the lowest employment population ratio: 49.7%, in 2019. Among white women, the proportion was 62.6%. For those without children in that age group, percentages were 63.0%, among black and brown women, and 72.8% among white ones.

Women spend almost twice as much time as men on taking care of people or on household tasks

In Brazil, in 2019, women spent almost twice as much time as men on caring for people or on doing household tasks: 21.4 hours versus 11 hours per week.

Although in the South Region women spent more time on those activities (22.1 hours), inequality was highest in the North Region: 21.8 hours for women a s 10.5 for men, that is, 11.4 percentage points.

Black or brown women were more involved in caring for people and doing household tasks than white ones, spending 22.0 hours per week in 2019, versus 20.7 hours for the latter.

There are also striking differences by ranges of population by growing order of per capita household earnings: women in the 20% with the lowest earnings work, on the average, 24.1 hours in the activities of care and household tasks, whereas those with the 20% highest earnings work 18.2 hours.

29.6% of women and 15.6% of men work part-time

Women that need to balance paid and housework and care, in many cases, accept to be employed in part-time jobs. In 2019, about one third of women (29.6%) worked part-time (up to 30 hours per week), almost twice as men (15.6%).

Black or brown women were the ones holding most part-time positions, making up 32.7% of the total, versus 26.0% of white women. Men employed in part-time activities were 17.2% among blacks and browns and 13.5% among white ones. The North and Northeast e Northeast had the biggest proportions of women employed in part-time jobs: 39.2% and 37.5%, respectively.

Women earn 77.7% if the amount men do

In 2019, women earned 77.7% (or a little more than ¾) of men' earnings. Whereas the average monthly per capita earnings of men were R$2,555, that of women was R$1,985.

Inequality is higher among persons in the employment groups with the highest earnings. Among Directors and managers and Professionals in the fields of science and intellectuals, women earned, respectively, 61.9% and 63.6% of men's earnings.

In the Southeast and South Regions, women earned, on the average, 74.0% and 72.8%, respectively, of the amount men did. In the North and Northeast, where average earnings were lower for both men and women, disparity was lower (92.6% and 86.5%, respectively).

Proportion of school failure or evasion is higher among blacks and browns

Although attendance to school or daycare is similar for men and women in all the age groups, school delay is more prevalent among men, mainly black or brown ones. That is observed considering the net school attendance rate, which takes into consideration school attendance at the proper level for each age group, or the conclusion of such level.

In 2019, both sexes had the same rate (95.8%) at elementary school. At higher education, however, women registered a rate of 29.7%, versus 21.5% of men. A woman aged 18 to 24 years of age had, in 2019, about 38% more chances of being attending higher education or having a degree than men in the same age group.

Although reported indexes are higher among women than among men, access to education is unevenly distributed. In 2019, black or brown women between 18 and 24 years of age had an adjusted net attendance rate to higher education of 22.3%, almost 50% below that among white ones (40.9%) and almost 30% below the rate registered among white men (30.5%). The lowest adjusted net attendance rate was recorded in the group of black or brown men (15.7%).

Despite their higher level of schooling, women are still a minority among professors

In the population aged 25 and over, 15.1% of men and 19.4% of women had complete higher education in 2019. In the youngest range, those aged 25 to 34 years of age, the difference reaches 6.8 percentage points: 25.1% of the women had complete higher education, versus 18.3% of men.

Nevertheless, women made up 46.8% of the professors working in higher education institutions in Brazil. That proportion has grown, although slowly, in the last two decades. The highest proportion is found in Bahia (51.8%), and the lowest, in São Paulo (43.4%).

Only 13.3% of the undergraduates in Computer Science and ICT programs are women

Women are a minority in undergraduate courses in fields related to exact sciences and production. In 2019, they were only 13.3% in face-to-face undergraduate programs in Computer Science and ICT, and 21.6% in the field of Engineering and related professions. In areas related to care, women's participation is significantly higher. In the Welfare segment, which includes programs such as Social Service, women's participation reached 88.3% in 2019. Regarding Law and Medicine, two traditional areas, women also accounted for most of undergraduate enrollments, although by shorter margins – 55.2% and 59.7%, respectively.

Smoking is still most frequent among men, and obesity, among women

In 2019, whereas 15.7% of men aged 15 and over reported consuming tobacco products of some kind, that percentage in the case of women was 9.4% Compared to figures in 2013, when the age group surveyed was from 18 years of age onwards, smoking decreased in both groups, since rates then had been 18.9% for men and 11.0% for women, according to the National Survey of Health (PNS).

Obesity, in turn, increased between 2013 and 2019. Considering the population aged 20 onwards, obesity incidence among men increased from 17.5% to 22.8%. Among women, it went from 25.2% to 30.2% in 2019.

Life expectancy rises and child mortality falls among women

Life expectancy of women aged 60 was higher than that of men and increased between 2011 and 2019. In 2011, life expectancy of a 60 year old woman in Brazil was 23.1 years of age and went to 24.4, in 2019. Life expectancy of men rose from 19.6 to 20.7 years of age. A woman aged 60 in the South Region had almost 3 years more life expectancy than a woman the same age in the North Region: 25.3 and 22.4 years, respectively.

Child mortality (probability of a child dying before the age of five) of boys went from 20.6 per 1,000 live births, in 2011, to 15.1, in 2019. Considering girls, there was change in the indicator from 17.2 to 12.8, per 1,000 live births. Whereas in the North Region a girl born in 2019 had 17.2‰ chances of dying before the age of five, in the South Region, chances were of 9.0‰.

In 2020, women made up 14.8% of the elected deputies, 16% of city councilors and 7.1% of ministers

In Brazil, the percentage of female deputies in the House of Representatives changed from 10.5%, in December 2017, to 14.8%, in September 2020. Despite the increase, Brazil was the country in South America with the lowest proportion and was the 142nd in a ranking with data for 190 countries.

The campaign for office as a federal deputy shows the existing disparity between men and women in the House of Representatives. In 2018, 32.2% of the persons running for that position were women, versus 31.8%, in 2014. These proportions are still close to the minimum quote - 30% - of applications by sex, by party or party colligation, as established by legislation. In 2018, among persons running for office as a federal deputy with campaign revenue above R$ 1 million, only 18.0% were women. Studies show that the bigger the volume of financial resources leads to bigger chances of success in the elections.

In ministries inequality is even greater: on December 25, 2020, only two of the 22 ministers were women (7.1%)

At municipal level, only 16.0% of the city councilors elected in 2020 were women, an increase of less than 3 percentage points from 2016. The state with the lowest proportion was Rio de Janeiro, with 9.8%; the biggest was registered in Rio Grande do Norte, 21.8%.

Black or brown women were underrepresented among the elected female city councilors. Although they were 9.2% and 46.2% of women in the population in 2019, they held 5.3% and 33.8% of the positions won by women in 2020.

Women made up 27.6% of civil police corps in 2019

The percentage of female police officers is an indicator that, besides reaching the objective of having more women participating in public affairs, is part of the measures for women facing family and domestic violence. According to the Survey of Basic State Information (Estadic), in 2019, women represented 11% of police corps at work and 27.6% of those in Federation Units. In the overall, they correspond to 14.6%, with the lowest participation of women recorded in Rio Grande do Norte, 5.3%, and the highest in Amapá, 24.3%.

Women held 37.4% of management positions in 2019

In Brazil, in 2019, men held 62.6% of the existing management positions and women, 37.4%. The main disparity by sex was found in the 20% of the population with the highest earnings from the main job (77.7% for men versus 22.3% for women). Similarly, inequality is deeper in older age groups: among persons aged 60 and over, 78.5%, of the management positions were held by men o and 32.6% by women.

In 2019, 2.1% of marriages were of women up to 17 years of age

According to the 2019 Civil Registry Statistics, that year a total 21,769 marriages were officated between spouses with a woman up to 17 years of age. Men that age were 2,203 (0.2% of the total).

That phenomenon has recorded a decrease since 2011, when 48,637 marriages had been officated with women up to 17 years of age, 4.7% of the total that year. Rondônia stands out in 2019 with a proportion above the overall for Brazil (6.4%).

Norh Region has highest teenage fertility rate

In Brazil, in 2019, teenage fertility rate (of women aged 15 to 19) was 59 births per every 1,000 women. In 2011, the rate was 64‰.

In the Southeast and South Regions, teenage fertility rates were 49.4 and 50.0, respectively; in the Central West and Northeast, 62.7 and 65.2, respectively. In the North Region, it reached 84.5 births oer 1,000 women aged 15 to19. The highest rate was ovserved in Amazonas (93.2) and the lowest, in the Federal District (42.7). In world terms, the lowest rate, in 2018, was that of the European Union (8.9) and the highest, that of Subsaharan Africa (101.2).

30.4 % of femicides take place in the housing unit

Used for the analysis of feminicide (according to Law no.13,104/2015, homicides of women because they are female – domestic or family violence and contempt or discrimination against the female condition), information about the place of occurrence of violence shows that the proportion of homicides taking place in the housing unit affects women most. In 2018, whereas 30.4 % of femicides took place in the housing unit, the proportion among men was of 11.2%.

Black or brown women faced highest homicide rates, both in the housing unit or out of it. In the housing unit, the rate for black or brown women (1.4) was 34.8% abive that of white women (1.1); out of the housing unit, the rate was 121.7% higher (3.8 and 1.7, respectively).

Only 7.5% of the housing units have women's police stations

Among the measures established to care for women victims of violence, Maria da Penha Law provides for the creation of care services for those women. In 2018, the Survey of Basic Municipal Information (Munic) observed that only 2.7% of the Brazilian municipalities had a shelter ruled by the municipal government, 20.9% had specialized services to face violence against women and 9.7% offered specialized services for victims of sexual violence. In 2019, 7.5% municipalities had a specialized police station, and that level has not risen since 2012.