Summary of Social Indicators: in 2019, proportion of poor people falls to 24.7% but extreme poverty still reaches 6.5% of the population

November 12, 2020 10h00 AM | Last Updated: November 30, 2020 05h53 PM

The results are based on data from the Continuous National Household Sample Survey from 2012 to 2019, among other sources.

From 2018 to 2019, poverty measured by the $5.5 purchasing power parity (PPP) line fell from 25.3% to 24.7% of the population. Extreme poverty (US$ 1.90 PPP) remained at 6.5% of the population, in 2018 and in 2019, affecting more than half of the Northeast and 39.8% of black or brown women.

The Gini index (0.543) fell compared to 2018 (0.545), but the country is the ninth most unequal in the world according to the World Bank is the ninth in the world with the highest inequality level according to the World Bank.

Between 2018 and 2019, the unemployment rate fell from 12% to 11.7%. However, the proportion of unemployed population for at least two years rose from 23.5% in 2017 to 27.5% in 2019.

Among young people aged 15 to 29 years, 22.1% did not study and were not employed in 2019. The percentage was lower than that of 2018, due to the increase in the employment-to-population ratio.

In 2019, the states of the Northeast had more than ¼ of young people aged 15 to 29 who neither studied nor were employed, a pattern seen in the series started in 2016.

Among black or brown women aged 15 to 29 years, 32.0% did not study and had no employment in 2019, a proportion 2.4 times higher than that of young white people in the same situation (13.2%).

In 2018, according to Caged, more than 71 thousand hirings occurred intermittently in the country, representing 0.5% of admissions with a formal contract. In 2019, there were more than 155 thousand hires in this intermittent way, or 1.0% of admissions with formal contract.

Four out of ten employed workers were informal in 2019. Informality in the Brazilian labor market, of a structural nature, reached 41.6% of the country's workers in 2019, or 39.3 million persons. This indicator remained stable in relation to 2018. The proportion was higher in the North (61.6%) and lower in the South (29.1%).

Among the employed persons with no education or with incomplete primary education, the proportion of informal workers was 62.4%, but only 21.9% among those had complete higher education.

In 2019, the gross school attendance rate of children aged 0 to 3 years reached 35.6% and, in the group aged 4 and 5, it reached 92.9%, but it is still below the goals of the National Education Plan ( 50% for children aged 0 to 3 and universalization for those aged 4 and 5 by 2024).

In the 18- to 24-year-old age group, 35.7% of white youths were attending or had already completed higher education in 2019. Among black or brown youths, this percentage was only 18.9%.

In 2019, among people aged 25 and over, 51.1% had not completed high school, but only 4.5% of the population at this age group attended schools.

A total of 23.8 million young people aged 15 to 29 and without complete higher education were out of school; 57.6% of black or brown men and 53.2% of black or brown women were in this situation.

Among the reasons given by young people for having stopped studying, or never having studied, “needed to work” was the most recurrent answer, but with a higher incidence for men (43.1%) than for women (26.0% ). The percentage of young people who neither studied nor were employed fell from 23.0% in 2018 to 22.1 in 2019.

In 2019, Pará the highest proportion of informal workers (67,9%)

In 2019, 39.3 million persons were employed in the five modalities that constitute informal work (employee and domestic worker without a formal contract, self-employed and employer not contributing to Social Security and contributing family worker), which represented 41.6 % of the employed population, representing the highest percentage in the series, and stability compared to 2018 (41.5%).

Among employed persons with no education or with incomplete elementary education, the proportion of informal workers was 62.4%, against 21.9% for those with complete higher education.

Pará (67.9%), Maranhão (65.4%) and Piauí (65.1%) were the Federation Units with the highest percentage of workers in informal occupations in 2019, while Santa Catarina (23.4%), Rio Grande do Sul (30.4%), São Paulo and Paraná (both with 31.4%), had the lowest proportions.

Unemployment rate down in 2019

In 2019, the unemployment rate (11.7%) showed a relative improvement compared to 2018 (12%). The unemployment rate of the black or brown population (13.6%) was higher than that of the white population (9.2%), a pattern already observed in the series. Even among individuals with the same level of schooling, the rate is higher for blacks or browns. It happens for all schooling levels. In complete elementary or incomplete high school, for example, the unemployment rate ranges from 13.7% among whites to 18.4% among blacks or browns.

Whites earn 69.3% more on average than blacks and browns

The presence of blacks or browns is greater in Agriculture (62.7%), Construction and Domestic Services (66.6%), activities that had lower than average earnings in 2019. In the Information services, financial activities and others professional activities and public administration, education, health and social services, whose average incomes were much higher than the average, are found the activities that had the largest participation of white employed persons.

In 2019, the employed population of white color or race earned 69.3% more than blacks or browns, and men 12.7% more than women, considering the same number of hours worked. The white employed population received an hourly income higher than the black or brown population, regardless the level of schooling, with the largest difference (44.6%) in the complete Higher education level, R$ 33.90 against R$ 23.50.

Piauí and Maranhão had the lowest average earnings (R$ 1,280 and R$ 1,287, respectively) and the Federal District (R$ 3,953), São Paulo (R$ 2,817) and Rio de Janeiro (R$ 2,715), the highest.

Compared to OECD countries, Brazil had one of the biggest proportions of long-term unemployment

Between 2017 and 2019, the unemployment rate fell from 12.5% to 11.7%, but the proportion of long-term unemployed persons (more than a year looking for a job) did not change significantly in the period. The proportion of the unemployed for at least two years increased from 23.5% in 2017 to 27.5% in 2019.

For the international comparison of the phenomenon of long-term unemployment, the ILO proposes the indicator of 'proportion of the labor force unemployed for at least one year'. The comparison with OECD countries, based on data from 2018, places Brazil (5.1%) among the highest incidences of the phenomenon, just behind Greece (13.6%), Spain (6.4%) and Italy (6.3%)

Intermittent contract doubles in 2019 and reaches 13% of the new formal contracts

Based on data from Caged, the Summary shows that in 2018, the first full year of the labor reform (enacted in July 2017), more than 71 thousand hirings occurred intermittently in the country, representing 0.5% of the admissions with a formal contract. In 2019, there were more than 155 thousand, or 1.0% of the admissions, more than half (84 thousand) in the Southeast.

In 2018, there was a balance (admissions, minus terminations) of 51.2 thousand jobs with an intermittent contract, corresponding to 9.4% of the balance of formal jobs. In 2019, 85.7 thousand new jobs were generated in intermittent mode, that is, 13.3% of all new jobs with a formal contract.

The Northeast showed greater intensity in the replacement of continuous employment contracts with intermittent ones. In fact, 19.9% ​​of the balance of jobs in the Northeast region in 2019 were intermittent. In the Central-West, the growth of the balance of jobs by intermittent contract was 164%, between 2018 and 2019.

Gini index down in 2019, but Brazil is the ninth country in inequality in the world

The Gini index of per capita household income was 0.543 in 2019, decreasing in relation to 2018 (0.545) and increasing compared to 2015 (0.524), the lowest index in the Continuous PNAD series.

The South region had the lowest income inequality (0.467 in 2019). The Northeast showed the highest percentage growth in the indicator between 2012 and 2019 (2.4%) and was the only region where Gini grew, between 2018 and 2019, going from 0.545 to 0.559. Three northeastern capitals stood out as the most unequal: Recife (0.612), João Pessoa (0.591) and Aracaju (0.581). The only capital to fall below the 0.500 level was Goiânia, with a Gini of 0.468.

According to data from the World Bank for the World Development Indicators report, Brazil remains one of the most unequal in the world when it comes to income distribution among its inhabitants, being the ninth most unequal country in the world in this assessment.

Maranhão still holds the lowest average and median per capita earnings of the country

The per capita average household income in 2019 was R$ 1,406 for the total Brazilian population. The Southeast (R$ 1,720) and South (R$ 1,701) regions had the highest incomes, approximately twice as the per capita household income in the North (R$ 872) and Northeast (R$ 884). This pattern of difference in levels of per capita household income has changed little since 2012.

In Brazil, the median per capita household income (to which up to half the population has access) was equivalent to about 60% of the average income and was R$ 861 in 2019, less than the national minimum wage in force that year (R$ 998).

Cash transfer benefits such as Bolsa Família and BPC account for 1/3 of the earnings of 12% of the population

The Summary of Social Indicators shows that 11.8% of the Brazilian population in 2019 lived with up to ¼ of the monthly minimum wage per capita (about R$ 250) and almost 30% with up to ½ minimum wage per capita (R$ 499). In the Northeast, almost half of the population had up to this last level of monthly income. At the other end of the distribution, in Brazil, 4.1% had a per capita income higher than 5 minimum wages (R$ 4,990), in the Federal District 12.9% of the population had this income.

For the total population, attention is drawn to the increase in the share of retirement pensions and social security benefits between 2012 and 2019, which went from 18.1% to 20.5% of total household income. However, this growth is concentrated among those with the highest incomes (increase of 14.1% in the period for persons with per capita household income above 3 minimum wages).

The weight of retirement pensions and social security benefits in the household income for people with up to ¼ of the minimum wage per capita, which was 8% in 2012, decreased further in 2019, to 7%. In this income bracket, the participation of the “other income” component - Bolsa Família, BPC, among others - is much more significant, being responsible for more than 1/3 of the total income in 2019.

In 2019, proportion of poor people falls to 24.7% and extreme poverty still covers 6.5% of the population

The Summary shows that the analysis of the evolution in time of extreme poverty in Brazil worsened in relation to the beginning of the series, with an increase of 13.5% in the incidence considering the US$ 1.90 PPP, from 5.8%, in 2012, to 6.5% of the population, in 2019. In relation to 2018 (6.5%), there was stability.

Considering the US$ 5.50 PPP line, there was a reduction in the proportion of the poor between 2012 and 2019, from 26.5% to 24.7% of the population. Compared to 2018, the proportion of persons with per capita household income below this line dropped by 0.6 percentage points, from 25.3% to 24.7%.

Among those who declared themselves white, 14.7% were poor and 3.4% were extremely poor, while among blacks and browns, 32.3% were poor and 8.9% were extremely poor.

Table 8 - Persons by ranges of per capita household income. according to selected characteristics of households and persons. total. incidence and percentage distribution - 2019
Selected characteristics of households and persons Total Proportion of persons by ranges of per capita household income
(1 000 persons) Less than US$ 1.9 PPP 2011 (1) Less than US$ 5.5 PPP 2011 (1)
Absolute Percentage Distribution (%) Total Proportion (Incidence in each group) (%) Percentage Distribution (%) Total Proportion (Incidence in each group) (%) Percentage Distribution (%)
(1 000 persons) (1 000 persons)
Total 209 415 100 13 689 6.5 100 51 742 24.7 100
Sex
Men 101 054 48.3 6 525 6.5 47.7 24 883 24.6 48.1
Women 108 361 51.7 7 163 6.6 52.3 26 859 24.8 51.9
Color or race (3)
White 89 373 42.7 3 055 3.4 22.3 13 168 14.7 25.4
Black or brown 117 855 56.3 10 499 8.9 76.7 38 072 32.3 73.6
Sex and color or race (2)
White men 42 222 20.2 1 420 3.4 10 6298 15 12
Black or brown men 57 790 27.6 5 049 8.7 37 18358 32 35
White women 47 151 22.5 1 635 3.5 12 6870 15 13
Black or brown women 60 065 28.7 5 450 9.1 40 19714 33 38
Level of schooling
Uneducated or incomplete primary education 57 318 27.4 4 896 8.5 35.8 16 704 29.1 32.3
Complete primary education or incomplete secondary education 28 655 13.7 2 051 7.2 15 8 112 28.3 15.7
Complete secondary education or incomplete higher degree 57 190 27.3 1 899 3.3 13.9 9 033 15.8 17.5
Complete higher degree 24 824 11.9 151 0.6 1.1 635 2.6 1.2
Employment status (4)
Employed 94 573 45.2 1 889 2 13.8 13 321 14.1 25.7
With a formal labor contract 35 203 16.8 14 0 0.1 2 502 7.1 4.8
Without a formal labor contract 14 477 6.9 490 3.4 3.6 3 366 23.3 6.5
Domestic worker 6 154 2.9 233 3.8 1.7 1 574 25.6 3
Military or statutory civil servant 7 870 3.8 1 0 0 241 3.1 0.5
Employee in the private sector 45 909 21.9 493 1.1 3.6 5 526 12 10.7
Employer 4 370 2.1 4 0.1 0 101 2.3 0.2
Self-employed 24 415 11.7 893 3.7 6.5 4 715 19.3 9.1
Contributing family worker 2 084 1 255 12.2 1.9 822 39.5 1.6
Residents in household arrangements by type
Unipersonal 11 726 5.6 871 7.4 6.4 1 281 10.9 2.5
Couple without children 31 070 14.8 974 3.1 7.1 2 756 8.9 5.3
Couple with child/children 117 608 56.2 7 676 6.5 56.1 33 724 28.7 65.2
Arrangement composed by head without a spouse with child/children under 15 13 027 6.2 2 531 19.4 18.5 6 977 53.6 13.5
Arrangement composed by woman head without a spouse with child/children under 15 11 906 5.7 2 419 20.3 17.7 6 537 54.9 12.6
Arrangement composed by head white wonan without a spouse with child/children under 15 3 632 1.7 445 12.3 3.3 1 386 38.2 2.7
Arrangement composed by head black or brown wonan without a spouse with child/children under 15 8 149 3.9 1 953 24 14.3 5 085 62.4 9.8
Other 35 985 17.2 1 636 4.5 12 7 003 19.5 13.5
Source: IBGE. Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua 2019. consolidado de primeiras entrevistas,
Notes: Except persons whose condition at home was a pensioner, domestic worker or relative of domestic worker.
Deflated earnings for average reais for the same year.
(1) Conversion rate from purchasing power parity to private consumption, R$ 1,66 to US$ 1,00 PPP 2011, daily values made monthly and inflated by the IPCA for recent years.
(2) Median calculated at the person level.
(3) Results are not shown for yellows. Indigenous persons and persons without a declaration of color or race.
(4) Results are not shown for unemployed persons and those outside the workforce.
(5) Private sector employees are also represented in the categories "employee with a formal contract" and "employee without a formal contract".

Black or brown women are 39.8% of the extremely poor population

Black or brown women stood out among the poor: they were 28.7% of the population, 39.8% of the extremely poor and 38.1% of the poor. The home arrangement made up ofblack or brown women as head, without a spouse and with the presence of children under 14 years of age, concentrated the highest incidence of poverty: 24% of the residents of these arrangements had per capita household income below US$ 1.90 and 62.4% less than US$ 5.50. Among children up to 14 years of age, 11.3% were extremely poor and 41.7% were poor.

Contributing family workers were the most seen employment type in extreme poverty (12.2%) and poverty (39.5%). Also noteworthy is the fact that 25.6% of domestic workers, 23.3% of workers without a labor contract and 19.3% of self-employed workers are among those considered poor by the US$ 5.50 PPP line.

11.5% of the population live in households without ownership documents

Among the five household inadequacies analyzed, the most common was absence of documentation proving ownership of the property. This information was investigated for the first time by the Continuous PNAD in 2019. In the total population, 11.5% lived in households with this inadequacy, a proportion that reached 21.4% of persons with per capita household income below US$ 5.50 PPP per day.

In 2019, just 26.1% of the population of the North region were served by sewage through network or rain drainage

In the population as a whole, 90.6% lived, in 2019, in households with direct or indirect garbage collection, 84.7% in households with water supply through the general network, and 65.8% in households with sewage through the collection network or rain drainage.

The Southeast obtains the best results for the three services: in 2019, 97.0% of its population lived in households with garbage collection, 92.1% lived in households with water supply and 88.3% were in households with sewage by collecting or rain network. The North region had the worst results for the three services: 78.7% of the population was in households with garbage collection, 58.3% in households with water supply through the general network and 26.1% with sewage with collection network or rain drainage.

Motorcycle ownership is more common among lower income ranges

In 2019, 51.9% of the population lived in households with a private car, but among the population with per capita household income below US$ 5.50 PPP per day, the proportion was 21.6%.
Among the assets investigated by the Continuous PNAD, the motorcycle is peculiar: its ownership is more widespread among the population with per capita household income below US$ 5.50 PPP per day (27.9%) than in the population as a whole (25.9%) - a result influenced by the use of the motorcycle as a working tool in occupations involving delivery services or motorcycle taxi, as well as for transport in rural areas, replacing animal traction.

Gross school atendance increases in almost all age groups

Between 2016 (first year of the time series) and 2019, the gross school attendance rate, that is, the proportion of persons in a certain age group who attend school (from day care centers to higher education) increased in five of the six age groups considered.

The smallest increases were in the groups aged 6 to 10 years old (0.3 pp) and 11 to 14 years old (0.6 pp), which is due to the fact that, in 2016, the country was already very close to universalization in both ranges (99.5% and 98.9%, respectively).

In the 15 to 17 age group, the country reached, in 2019, a gross school attendance rate of 89.2%, with an increase of 2.0 percentage points compared to the data recorded in 2016. The group aged 18 to 24 years old was the only one with no advance in the gross school attendance rate in the period.

School attendance of kids aged 0 to 5 improves in 2019, but it is still far from the target

In 2019, the gross school attendance rate of children aged 0 to 3 years reached 35.6%, an increase of 5.2 percentage points in relation to 2016. In the range between 4 and 5 years, the gross school attendance rate rose 2.7 percentage points, reaching 92.9% in 2019. However, the country has not yet reached the targets set in the National Education Plan (PNE): until 2024, the universalization of early childhood education for children aged 4 to 5 years old and of 50% for children up to 3 years old.

The South Region had the best result in the group of 0 to 3 years old (43.3%) and the Northeast in the group of 4 to 5 years old (95.8%). The North Region appeared with the worst indicator in both cases: 17.6% of children up to 3 years old and 86.6% of children aged 4 to 5 years at school.

Net school attendance advances faster than the gross one for persons aged 11 to 17

The adjusted net school attendance rate (Tafel) represents the proportion of persons who attend the appropriate education level for their age group or who had already completed this level, according to the Brazilian educational system. It increased between 2016 and 2019.

In the 18- to 24-year-old group, Tafel increased by 1.6 pp, from 23.9% in 2016 to 25.5% in 2019. This increase took place in parallel with the reduction in the proportion of young people of this age group in previous school stages, from 12.3% to 11.0%.

Tafel rose 2.8 pp in the group aged 11 to 14 years old, between 2016 and 2019, reaching 87.5%, and 3.2 pp in the group aged 15 to 17 years old, reaching 71.4%. In both cases, it expanded faster than the gross school attendance rate, indicating adequate school flow.

Amapá, Santa Catarina and FD already surpassed the adjusted attendance rate of higher education in 2019

Tafel for persons aged 15 to 17 was below the indicated target in the PNE until 2024 (85%). No Federation Unit reached the proportion, and the highest figure was that of São Paulo (84.1%).

The North and Northeast Regions had lower results in the three age groups, with some exceptions. Roraima and Ceará stood out with good results in the ages of 11 to 14 years old (primary school) and 15 to 17 years old (secondary school).

Amapá (34.4%) has one of the highest Tafel in higher education (group aged 18 to 24). The state, together with Santa Catarina (33.7%) and the Federal District (42.2%) are the only ones that exceeded the 33% level of Tafel in higher education, which is the target set in the PNE.

White youngster is twice as much likely attend or have graduated from higher education

In 2019, in the 18- to 24-year-old age group, a white young person was approximately twice as likely to attend or have completed higher education than a black or brown young person: 35.7% against 18.9%.

A young man living in an urban household, on the other hand, was about three times more likely to be attending or having completed higher education than a young man living in a rural household - 28.1% against 9.2%.

Only 7.6% of young people belonging to the quintile with the lowest per capita household income attended or had already completed higher education in 2019, a proportion eight times lower than that found among young people in the highest income quintile (61.5%).

Southeast is the only region to achieve PNE’s target of 12 years of schooling

The average number of years of schooling in the population between 18 and 29 years old living in rural households registered by the Continuous PNAD in 2019 was 10.0 years, and in the population living in urban households it was 11.8 years, both below the PNE’s target, which is 12 years old until 2024. The Southeast was the only region to reach this mark in 2019; North and Northeast registered a value of 10.9 years for this indicator. In the color or race category, whites had an average schooling of 12.3 years and blacks or browns, 11.1 years.

Six out of ten students in public secondary schools are blacks or browns

Blacks or browns represented 62.1% of the population between 15 and 17 years old in 2019. Among public high school students, this proportion is 63.9%. In private education, they were 35.7%.

In higher education, the distribution by color or race of students from public and private schools is similar, registering proportions of black and brown students of 49.9% and 47.0%, respectively, well below the proportion of blacks and browns in the population between 18 and 24 years (60.4%) in 2019.

In the distribution by income quintiles, the public high school system had a distribution (30.9% in the 1st quintile, 29.1% in the 2nd) relatively close to that observed in the population aged 15 to 17 years (31.8% in the 1st quintile, 26.4% in the 2nd), while the private system has a more concentrated distribution in the quintile with the highest income (46.5%).

More than 50% of higher education students were in the highest income ranges

In higher education, the public network (23.7% in the 4th quintile and 29.2% in the 5th) and the private network (29.9% in the 4th and 34.7% in the 5th) had a distribution concentrated in the higher-income ranges, in contrast to the population between 18 and 24 years old (22.4% in the 1st and 22.8% in the 2nd).

However, public education had a higher percentage of participation by students in the lower income quintiles: in 2019, 26.7% of students in the public higher education network belonged to the two lower income quintiles, a proportion that was 17.0 % on the private network.

Just 4.5% of persons aged 25 and over study

In 2019, 51.1% of persons aged 25 and over had not completed high school. Despite having the constitutional right to complete their studies free of charge, only 4.5% of the population in this age group attended school at any level.

The evolution observed between 2016 and 2019 in the schooling level of the population of this age group is mainly the result of the death of older people with less education and the entry into this age group of more educated people.

Almost half of the persons aged 25 and over in the Northeast are either uneducated or have incomplete primary education

In the population over 25 years of age in the Northeast, 49.1% had no education or had incomplete primary education, and only 12.1% had completed higher education. In the Southeast region, in 2019, the proportion of people with no education or with incomplete primary education was 32.5%, while the proportion of people with higher education was 20.5%.

The proportion of people of color or white race aged 25 or over with higher education was 24.9%, while blacks or browns registered 11.0%. It is also noted that women presented a distribution by schooling level higher than that of men.

Illiteracy rate of persons aged 65 and over is 37.1% in the lowest income quintile

In the highest income quintile, the illiteracy rate of the first four age groups, up to 54 years old, is less than 1%, and remains practically the same. In this population quintile, the illiteracy rate only exceeds 1% in the group aged 65 and over. In the quintile with the lowest income, despite the illiteracy rate among people aged 15 to 19 is 0.8%, it reaches 1.9% in the next age group (20 to 24 years) and rises rapidly in the later age groups, to reach 37.1% in the group aged 65 or over.

Proportions of youngsters without a college degree who were not studying is higher among black or brown men

In 2019, about 23.8 million young persons aged 15 to 29 and without complete higher education did not attend school, prep courses or vocational education courses. The proportion of young persons who did not study and had not completed higher education was higher among black or brown men (57.6%).

Black or brown women appeared next (53.2%), at disadvantage compared to white men (47.4%), even though women were more educated in general. White women had the lowest percentage for this indicator (39.5%). The profile of black or brown women who did not study and had not completed higher education in 2019 was distinguished from the other groups, since among them the majority were not employed, while in the others those who were employed prevailed.

Women have interruped education due to household chores and caretaking 13 times more than men

Among the reasons given by young persons for having stopped studying, or never having studied, “needed to work” was the most recurrent answer, but with a higher incidence for men (43.1%) than for women (26.0% ).

Women, in turn, in addition to interrupting their studies as a result of pregnancy (11.8%), also do so because they are more assigned to household chores and caretaking of children, the elderly and people with disabilities (6.5% ), 13 times more than men (0.5%).

Among white young women, 9.2% indicated pregnancy as the main reason for stopping studying and 4.9% for carrying out chores and caretaking. Among young black or brown women, these reasons appeared with 13.1% and 7.3%, respectively. More than half (56.4%) of the women who stopped studying as a result of pregnancy stated that they were not studying because they had to do household chores or care for children, adolescents, etc.

In the analysis by quintiles of income, the lower the quintile, the more the answers from youngsters relating their lack of studies or to household chores or care for children, adolescents, elderly people or people with disabilities.

In the Northeast, ¼ of the youngsters neither studied nor worked in 2019

The proportion of young persons aged between 15 and 29 who neither studied nor had a job decreased in 2019, from 23.0% in the previous year to 22.1%. This movement was due to the increase in the youth occupation level. Despite this increase, Brazil was in a worse situation than most of the countries that make up Mercosur as States Parties or associated countries.

The states of the South Region showed percentages of young persons without work and without occupation ?? that are closer to those in developed countries, especially in the capitals. On the other hand, in the Northeast region, in all the Federation Units, more than ¼ of the young persons aged between 15 and 29 years old did not study or were employed. In this region, only 40.5% of young people were employed, while the national average was 49.8%.

A young black woman is 2.4 times more likely neither to study nor to work than a young white man

The proportion of young persons who did not study or work was higher among women (27.5%) than among men (16.6%). In the analysis by color or race, 17.0% of young whites and 25.3% of young blacks or browns did not study or were employed. This difference was slightly increased in relation to the previous year (18.5% of whites and 25.8% of blacks or browns).

Among black or brown women aged 15 to 29 years, 32.0% did not study and had no occupation in 2019. A young black or brown woman was, therefore, 2.4 times more likely to be in this situation than a young man white (13.2%). White women, on the other hand, were in a greater proportion without studying and without occupation (20.8%) than black or brown men (18.9%) in 2019.

In the analysis by income, 42.8% of young persons who neither studied nor were employed in 2019 were in the quintile of the population with the lowest per capita household income and only 4.7% in the quintile with the highest income.