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PEVS 2019: value of production of silviculture and wild-crop harvesting falls 2.7% and stands at R$ 20 billion

October 15, 2020 10h00 AM | Last Updated: October 21, 2020 05h49 PM

The 2.7% drop compared to 2018 came after three consecutive years of growth. As it has happened reccurently since 2000, the value of silviculture production surpassed that of wild-crop harvesting.

In 2019, silviculture contributed with 77.7% (R $ 15.5 billion) to the value of forest production (R$ 20.0 billion), with a decrease of 5.0% in relation to 2018, after three consecutive years of growth. The share of wild-crop harvesting (collection of products from native forests and woods) was 22.3% (R$ 4.5 billion), with an increase of 6.4% compared to 2018. Of the nine product groups that make up wild crops, seven increased their production value.

Wood products represent 64.5% of wild-crop harvesting, followed by food products (27.4%), waxes (5.3%) and oilseeds (2.3%). Among non-wood harvested products, carnauba (powder) and pine nuts stand out, with increases of 15.8% and 13.6%, respectively, in the value of production.

Wood represents 97.3% of the silviculture production value. There was a 5.3% reduction in the value of the production of wood products from silviculture and an increase of 8.8% in that from wild-crop harvesting.

The country's area of planted forest amounts to 10 million hectares. The production of eucalyptus for the paper and pulp industry stretches over 7.6 million hectares, while Pinus is in 2 million hectares and other species, in 387 thousand hectares. Whereas 42.6% of the eucalyptus areas were concentrated in the Southeast, 51.6% of the pine forests are in the South.

The South and Southeast of the country account for 63.8% of the production value of forest production, mainly due to its planted forests.

Despite the 5.4% decrease, Minas Gerais keeps the highest value of production (R$ 4.4 billion) which represents 28.3% of the national value of silviculture, with Paraná (R$ 3.1 billion) coming next. João Pinheiro (MG) had the highest value of production in 2019 (R$ 263.7 million).

You will find this and further indformation in the 2019 Forestry Activities (PEVS) survey, which investigates 37 wild-crop products and seven silviculture products in all Brazilian municipalities.

Silviculture decreased 5.0%, due to the fall in the value of pulp production

After three years of growth, the value of silviculture production fell by 5.0%, reaching R$15.5 billion. The main influence was the 11.0% reduction in the value of pulp production to R$4.5 billion. As a result, the share of silviculture in the value of forest production was 77.7%, while wild-crop harvesting accounted for 22.3%.

In 2019, international pulp prices fell, and production fell 15.1%. According to the Foreign Trade Secretariat (SECEX), in 2019, pulp occupied the 4th place in the country's export ranking.

With second place in the generation of value from silviculture, roundwood for other purposes represented 28.9% of the total of the sector, totaling R$4.5 billion, a reduction of 3.0% in the value of production. In quantitative terms, the drop was 2.8%, compatible with the retraction also recorded in the value of production.

Firewood was the only product on the rise in 2019

Among the wood products of silviculture, firewood was the only one that had an increase in the value of production (1.1%). Charcoal, which stood out due to a sharp increase in the previous year, showed a slight drop in 2019, both in quantity (1.5%) and in value of production (4.0%), which decreased to R$3.9 billion.

In the non-wood silviculture group, the value of production of all products increased. Resin, the most representative product in this group, registered an increase of 2.6%, with R$371.7 million, with São Paulo having a 62.2% share in the national volume. Black wattle bark stood out, with an increase of 29.4% in quantity and 36.4% in value, with Rio Grande do Sul responsible for the total production.

Minas Gerais keeps the highest value of forest production in Brazil

Minas Gerais continues with the highest value of silviculture production, with R$4.4 billion. It is also the biggest producer of charcoal, accounting for 86.8% of the national volume. Despite the fall in the amount of charcoal in the country, in Minas Gerais there was an increase of 2.2%. But the value of production fell by 2.0%.

Paraná is the second in terms of value of production (R$3.1 billion) and registered a 6.2% increase in roundwood for other purposes, reaching 17.9 million cubic meters, or 34.2% of the total national, remaining as the largest producer in the country. With an estimated production of 12.6 million cubic meters, 24.6% of the national total, the state also stood out in the production of firewood from planted forests, surpassing Rio Grande do Sul, which fell by 6.9%.

Mato Grosso do Sul, highlighted in the previous year, remains as the biggest national producer of roundwood for paper and pulp, however with a 16.6% drop in quantity, totaling 14.6 million cubic meters. The downturn was a reflection of what occurred across the industry, due to low pulp prices in 2019.

Municipality of João Pinheiro (in Minas Gerais) leads silviculture 

Leading the ranking of municipalities, João Pinheiro (MG) had the highest value of production from silviculture (R$263.7 million) in 2019. The municipality is also the national leader in the production of eucalyptus charcoal, which grew 7.4% in quantity in relation to 2018. Três Lagoas (MS) generated the second highest value of silviculture (R$247.3 million) and stood out in the production of wood in eucalyptus logs for paper and pulp, which had a retraction of 11.0 %, in the year.

Completing the group of the ten highest values of silviculture production in 2019 are four municipalities from Minas Gerais (Itamarandiba, Curvelo, Três Marias and Buritizeiro), three from Paraná (General Carneiro, Telêmaco Borba and Cerro Azul) and Ribas do Rio Pardo (MS).

Area of planted forests in the country grew 1.2% over 2018

The total area of ​​planted forests in the country grew 1.2%, totaling 10 million hectares, mainly in the Southeast and South Regions (70%). There was an increase of 118.1 thousand hectares of coverage; of which approximately 79.4 thousand hectares correspond to eucalyptus areas, which represent 76.3% of the total area. Together, eucalyptus (7.6 million hectares) and pine (2 million hectares) were responsible for covering 96.1% of the areas cultivated with forests planted for commercial purposes. Other species add up to 387 thousand hectares.

The Southeast surpassed the South and emerges as the Region with the largest area of ​​planted forests in the country (35.3%). The difference between the two Regions is 56.9 thousand hectares and reflects the trend of expansion of the silviculture area in the Southeast, detected in the previous year.

In 2019, all the logging groups surveyed indicated a predominance of eucalyptus wood-based production in the national territory. In the paper and pulp industry, while eucalyptus serves as a raw material for the production of short fiber pulp, mainly used in the production of printing, writing and sanitary paper, pine wood goes to the production of long fiber pulp, used in the production of superior quality paper and which demands greater resistance.

According to the International Labor Organization, Brazil is the third country that most employs formal workers in the forestry sector, after China and the United States.

Minas Gerais continues to record the largest area of ​​planted forests, with more than 2 million hectares, growth of 0.8% compared to 2018, almost all of which with eucalyptus. Paraná comes next with 1.5 million hectares, of which 53.4% ​​is for the development of pine.

A total of 3,523 municipalities recorded planted forest areas. Among the ten Municipalities with the largest areas of planted forests in Brazil, five are in Mato Grosso do Sul; three, in Paraná; one, in Minas Gerais; and one, in Bahia.

The municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul and Três Lagoas and Ribas do Rio Pardo had the largest planted forest areas in the country, with 263,700 hectares and 217,300 hectares, respectively, followed by Telêmaco Borba (PR), with 159 thousand hectares. These three municipalities are under the influence of the pulp and paper industries.

Ranking of the municipalities with the biggest areas of planted forests. by groups of forest species
Position Municipalities Eucaliptus (ha) Pinus (ha) Other species (ha) TOTAL (ha)
1 Três Lagoas – MS 263,690 0 0 263,690
2 Ribas do Rio Pardo – MS 213,931 3,360 0 217,291
3 Telêmaco Borba – PR 89,400 69,450 150 159,000
4 Água Clara – MS 131,942 334 0 132,276
5 Brasilândia – MS 128,600 0 0 128,600
6 João Pinheiro – MG 105,500 0 0 105,500
7 Ortigueira – PR 58,100 33,000 0 91,100
8 Caravelas – BA 88,074 0 0 88,074
9 Selvíria – MS 87,321 0 0 87,321
10 Reserva – PR 45,620 33,520 0 79,140

Wild-crop harvesting grows 6.4%, with rise in 7 of its 9 groups

In 2019, the value of production obtained through wild-crop harvesting grew by 6.4%, totaling R$4.5 billion. Of the nine product groups that make up the harvesting explotation in the survey, seven registered an increase.

The wood products group, which had the largest share in the value of wild-crop harvesting production (64.5%), registered an increase of 8.8% in relation to 2018. Over the past few years, the wild-crop harvesting production of wood has been losing ground, being gradually replaced by wood from cultivated forests. In 2019, however, there was no significant increase in the area of ​​planted forests, and a retraction was also detected in the forestry sector.

Among the wild-crop harvested wood, roundwood, with a greater share in the group's production value, recorded a 3.6% increase in production, reaching 12.0 million cubic meters, and a 10.8% increase in value production, totaling R$2.9 billion.

Pará and Mato Grosso accounted for almost two-thirds of the amount of logs extracted. Pará, which occupies the first position, with 3.8 million cubic meters, registered an increase of 15.8% in production and 18.8% in the value of production. Harvested charcoal showed a greater volume increase (10.1%), totaling 372.2 thousand metric tons in the year. Only firewood registered a drop in value of production (5.1%) and in quantity (4.8%).

Acai berries still boost value of production (R$588.6 million) among food products

Non-wood harvested products recorded a 2.3% increase in the value of production, totaling R$1.6 billion. This type of harvesting has great relevance for traditional peoples and communities, contributing to the employment and income distribution.

The food products group, the largest among non-wood harvesters, showed a slight increase in the value of production (0.8%), totaling R$1.2 billion. Acai berries continued to record the largest share, in terms of value, in this group (48.3%).

The Amazonian acai berries are collected from a palm tree native to the region, with 92.1% of its harvesting concentrated in the states of the Northern Region. In 2019, production totaled 222.7 thousand metric tons, 0.5% above that obtained in the previous year. In terms of value, however, there was a decrease of 0.6%, totaling R$588.6 million.

Pará recorded the largest production of acai berries, with 151.8 thousand metric tons, which represents a volume 2.8% higher than that observed in the previous year. In the ranking of the top 10 Municipalities in 2019, eight are from Pará, and the Municipality of Limoeiro do Ajuru continues to occupy the position of the largest national producer of harvested acai berries, accounting, alone, for 18.9% of the national total.

Yerba mate harvesting grows 4.5% and reaches 362.5 thousand metric tons

The harvesting of yerba mate, concentrated in the South Region, reached 362.5 thousand metric tons, an increase of 4.5% compared to 2018. The value of production of yerba mate (R$393.2 million) decreased 1, 7%, but it is still the second largest among non-wood products. The top ten municipalities are from Paraná, led by Cruz Machado, who concentrates 15.3% of the national total.

Currently, the largest volume of acai berries and yerba mate produced in the country comes from cultivated areas, monitored by the survey of Municipal Agricultural Production (PAM).

After the 2018 rise, the production of Brazil nuts fell 3.7%, reaching 32.9 thousand metric tons. However, their value of production grew by 3.7% and reached R$135.8 million. Amazonas is the largest producer, with 12.2 thousand metric tons. Among the municipalities, Humaitá (AM) leads the ranking, concentrating 13.7% of the national production.

Another highlight among non-wood companies was carnauba (powder), both in volume, up 8.5%, reaching 19,500 metric tons, and in value, an increase of 15.8%, totaling R$219.1 million. Piauí was the main producer, accounting for 56.4% of the national volume. Among the municipalities, Granja (Ceará) leads with 1.6 thousand metric tons. In the ranking of the 10 municipalities with the highest production, five are from Piauí, four from Ceará and one from Maranhão.