IPCA-15 up 0.45% in September

September 23, 2020 09h00 AM | Last Updated: October 06, 2020 11h24 AM

The Extended National Consumer Price Index 15 (IPCA-15) rose 0.45% in September, 0.22 percentage points (pp) above the rate of August (0.23%) and the highest result for the month since September 2012, when the IPCA-15 was 0.48%. The IPCA-E, which is the cumulative IPCA-15 of the quarter, went to 0.98%, above the 0.26% rate recorded in the same period of 2019. In the year, the IPCA-15 accumulated an increase of 1.35% and, in 12 months, 2.65%, above the 2.28% registered in the previous 12 months. In September 2019, the rate was 0.09%.

Period Rate
September 2020 0.45%
August 2020 0.23%
September 2019 0.09%
IPCA-E 0.98%
Cumulative in the year 1.35%
Cumulative in 12 months 2.65%


In August, six out of the nine surveyed groups of products and services recorded increase. The biggest change (1.48%) and the major impact (0.30 pp) on the index were from Food and Beverages, with an increase in relation to August (0.34%). Transportation increased 0.83% and contributed with 0.16 pp. Household articles increased 0.79% despite the deceleration in relation to the previous month (0.88%). The sharpest negative contribution to the monthly index (-0.09 pp) was from Health and personal care (-0.69%). The other groups remained between the decrease of 0.27% in Wearing apparel and the increase of 0.34% in Housing.

Group Monthly Change (%) Impact (pp) Cumulative change
July August September September Quarter 12 months
General Index 0,30 0,23 0,45 0,45 0,98 2,65
Food and Beverage -0,13 0,34 1,48 0,30 1,69 9,93
Housing 0,50 0,57 0,34 0,05 1,42 0,62
Household Articles 0,68 0,88 0,79 0,03 2,37 -0,09
Wearing Apparel -0,91 -0,63 -0,27 -0,01 -1,80 -2,18
Transportation 1,11 0,75 0,83 0,16 2,71 -0,85
Health and Personal Care 0,40 0,62 -0,69 -0,09 0,33 2,05
Personal Expenses -0,23 0,03 0,09 0,01 -0,11 2,60
Education -0,07 -3,27 -0,11 -0,01 -3,44 1,12
Communication 0,46 0,86 0,15 0,01 1,48 3,09
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços, Sistema Nacional de Índices de Preços ao Consumidor.

The result of Food and Beverage (1.48%) was mainly due to food at home, which increased from 0.61% in August to 1.96% in September. The highest contribution (0.09 pp) came  from beef, with a high of 3.42%. The biggest change came from tomatoes (22.53%), against the decrease of 4.20% in the previous month. Soybean oil (20.33%), rice (9.96%) and long life milk (5.59%) also increased. As a result, the three sub-items accumulated highs of 34.94%, 28.05% and 27.33% in the year, respectively. Regarding falls, the highlights were onions (-19.09%), garlic (-11.90%) and potatoes (-8.20%).

Food away from home changed from a decrease of 0.30% in August to an increase of 0.36% in September. Meals changed 0.09% against the fall of 0.52% in the previous month, whereas snacks advanced to 0.89% in the comparison with August (0.06%).

The group with the second major change was Transportation (0.83%). The gasoline prices (3.19%)  rose for the third consecutive month and contributed with the major individual impact (0.15 pp) in the IPCA-15 of September. Except for Salvador (-2.66%), all surveyed areas recorded highs in the price of this fuel, between 0.61% in Rio de Janeiro and 9.03% in Brasilia. The diesel fuel (2.93%) and the ethanol (1.98%) also recorded increase. Only vehicular gas retreated (-2.58%).

Also in Transportation, airfares rose 6.11% after four consecutive months of decreases. However, in the year this sub-item accumulates falls of 55.18%.

Household articles (0.79%) was once more influenced by the high in the items Tv, sound and computer items (2.04%) and household appliances and equipment (0.66%). The prices of personal computers rose 17.99% between January and September this year. Furniture still is the highlighted item among the falls, with a decrease of 0.14%, the same change of August.

The strongest negative contribution (-0.09 pp) and the sharpest negative result (-0.69%) in September were from Health and personal care. This decrease was due to the health plan item (-2.31%), which contributed with -0.10 p.p, due to the decision of the National Regulatory Agency for Private Health Insurance and Plans - ANS on suspending the price adjustment of health plans until the end of 2020. As a result, all the proper increase considered beforehand in May, June, July and August related to the price adjustment that would be announced in July, was discounted in the IPCA-15 of September.

Wearing apparel also decreased (-0.27%) in September, although with less intensity than was in July (-0.91%) and August (-0.63%). Men’s (-0.31%), women’s (-0.52%) and children’s (-0.59%) wearing apparel are still on a downward trend, as well footwear and accessories (-0.32%). However, jewels increased 2.52% and accumulated high of 8.79% in the year.

In Housing (0.34%), the water and sewage fees rose 1.00% due to the price adjustment of 3.40% in the tariffs in São Paulo (3.28%), since August 15. Regarding falls, the piped gas (-1.65%) reflects the reductions of 5.16% in Rio de Janeiro (-2.99%), started on August 1, and of 8.88% in Curitiba (-7.35%), started on August 19. In Electricity (-0.03%), there was a price adjustment of 2.86% in Belém (0.28%), started on August 7.

All the regions had positive changes in September. The highest result was in Goiânia (1.10%), due to the increase in the prices of gasoline (8.19%) and rice (32.75%). The lowest change was in the metropolitan region of Salvador (0.18%), where the fall in gasoline prices (-2.66%) contributed with -0.12 pp to the month result.

Area Weight by Area (%) Monthly Change (%) Variação
Acumulada (%)
July August September Quarter 12 months
Goiânia 4,96 0,39 0,15 1,10 1,65 2,69
Brasília 4,84 0,55 0,08 0,70 1,33 2,33
Fortaleza 3,88 0,31 0,11 0,57 0,99 3,30
Curitiba 8,09 0,76 0,17 0,52 1,46 2,17
Recife 4,71 0,62 0,28 0,50 1,41 3,06
São Paulo 33,45 0,19 0,25 0,44 0,88 2,74
Belo Horizonte 10,04 0,26 0,37 0,42 1,05 2,63
Porto Alegre 8,61 0,07 0,30 0,41 0,78 2,10
Belém 4,46 0,22 0,15 0,38 0,75 3,41
Rio de Janeiro 9,77 -0,07 0,20 0,19 0,32 2,52
Salvador 7,19 0,75 0,23 0,18 1,16 3,02
Brazil 100,00 0,30 0,23 0,45 0,98 2,65
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços, Sistema Nacional de Índices de Preços ao Consumidor.

For the IPCA-15 calculation, prices were collected in the period within August 14 and September 11 of 2020 (reference) and compared with the results from between July 15 and August 13 of 2020 (base). The indicator refers to the families with incomes within 1 and 40 minimum wages and covers the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro, Porto alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife, São Paulo, Belém, Fortaleza, Salvador and Curitiba, as well as Brasília and Goiânia. The methodology is the same used in the IPCA, the difference is in the period of price collection and in the geographic coverage.