Quarterly Continuous PNAD: unemployment grows in 11 FUs in Q2 of 2020, but falls in Pará and Amapá

August 28, 2020 09h00 AM | Last Updated: September 09, 2020 11h14 AM

The unemployment rate of the country in the 2nd quarter of 2020 was of 13.3%, an increase of 1.1 percentage points over the 1st quarter of 2020 (12.2%). In the comparison with the same quarter of 2019 (12.0%), there was increase of 1.3 pp.

The highest rates occurred in Bahia (19.9%), Sergipe (19.8%) and Alagoas (17.8%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (6.9%), Pará (9.1%) and Rio Grande do Sul (9.4%).

The unemployment rate grew in 11 Federation Units from the 1st to the 2 quarter of 2020, with a highlight to Sergipe (4.3 percentage points), Mato Grosso do Sul (3.7 pp) nd Rondônia (2.3 pp). The only decreases occurred in Pará (-1.6 pp) and in Amapá (-5.8 pp).

In Q2 of 2020, the unemployment rate was 12.0% for men and 14.9% for women. For white persons (10.4%), the rate stood below the national average, bu to blacks (17.8%) and browns (15.4%), it stood above. Age groups from 14 to 17 (42.8%) and from 18 to 24 (29.7%) remained with the highest rates.

In Q2 of 2020, the compound rate of Labor Underutilization (Percentage of unemployment, time-related underemployment and in the potential workforce) was 29.1%. O Piauí (47.8%), had the highest rate, followed by Alagoas (46.4%), Maranhão (45.8%) and Sergipe (45.1%), all of them above 45%. Conversely, the lowest rates were in Santa Catarina (13.8%), Paraná (19,3%) e Mato Grosso (19,8%).

The number of discouraged workers was 5.6 million, a high of 19.1% in relation to the previous quarter. The greatest contingent was in Bahia (849 thousand).

The percentage of discouraged workers in relation to the  workforce or discouraged population in the 2nd quarter of 2020 was 5.6%, an increase of 1.2 pp in the comparison with the 1st quarter of 2020. Maranhão (21.6%) and Alagoas (20.7%) had the highest  percentages and Santa Catarina (1.4%) and the Federal District (1.2%), the lowest.

The percentage of employed with a formal record was of 77.7% of the total employed in the private sector of the country. The lowest indexes were in Maranhão (53.7%), Piauí (58.1%) and Pará (60.2%) and the biggest ones in Santa Catarina (90.5%), Paraná (83.2%) and São Paulo (83.2%).

The percentage of the population employed in the country working as self-employed was of 26%. The Federation Units with the biggest percentages were Amapá (36,7%), Paraíba (34,2%) and Pará (32,9%) and the lowest ones were in the Federal District (19.1%), São Paulo (22.3%) and Santa Catarina (23.6%).

In relation to the length of search, in the second quarter of 2020, 7.4 million unemployed searched for work from one month to less than a year, with high of 27.9% in relation to the same period of 2019. Another 2.5 million persons were job-searching for more than two years, a decrease of 26.5% in the comparison with the 2nd quarter of 2019.

The informality rate for Brazil stood at 36.9% of the employed population. Among the Federation Units, the highest rates were in Pará (56.4%) and Maranhão (55.6%) and Amazonas (55.0%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (25.8%), Federal District (26.0%) and São Paulo (28.6%).

BA, SE and AL record the highest unemployment rates in the second quarter of 2020

The Brazilian unemployment rate in the second quarter of 2020 was 13.3%. The Northeast Region still has the highest unemployment rate (16.1%), despite the stability in comparison with the first quarter of 2020 (15.6%). Among the Federation Units, the three biggest rates were: Bahia (19.9%), stable against the last quarter (18.7%), Sergipe (19.8%), an increase in relation to the last quarter (15.5%) and Alagoas (17.8%), also  stable against the last quarter (16.5%).

Besides Sergipe, which recorded a high of 4.3 percentage points in the unemployment rate in relation to the previous quarter, other 10 Federation Units also recorded increase. It is also worth highlighting Mato Grosso do Sul, which increased 3.7 pp and Rondônia, which increased 2.3 pp. Only Amapá and Pará had decrease in this rate (-5.8 and -1.6 pp). The other Federation Units recorded stability.

Regarding the same quarter of 2019, the unemployment rate increased in 12 Federation Units. Sergipe (4.5 pp), Rondônia (3.9 pp) and Minas Gerais (3.4 pp) recorded the major highs. Amapá and Pará also recorded decreases in this index, from 5.4 and 2.1 pp. The other Federation Units recorded stability.

Unemployment rate of persons aged 14 and older, by FUFs (%) - Q2 2020

FU Value
 Santa Catarina  6.9
 Pará  9.1
 Rio Grande do Sul  9.4
 Paraná  9.6
 Mato Grosso  10.2
 Rondônia  10.6
 Amapá  11.4
 Mato Grosso do Sul  11.4
 Ceará  12.1
 Espírito Santo  12.3
 Tocantins  12.6
 Piauí  12.7
 Paraíba  12.8
 Goiás  12.8
 Minas Gerais  12.9
 Brazil  13.3
 São Paulo  13.6
 Acre  14.2
 Rio Grande do Norte  15.0
 Pernambuco  15.0
 Federal District 15.6
 Maranhão  16.0
 Roraima  16.3
 Rio de Janeiro  16.4
 Amazonas  16.5
 Alagoas  17.8
 Sergipe  19.8
 Bahia  19.9

Women and black persons have the highest unemployment rates

The survey shows the differences in the unemployment rate among men and women. In the 2nd quarter of 2020, the estimate rate was 12.0% for men and 14.9% for women.

The unemployment rate among young persons aged between 18 and 24, (29.7%), recorded a high level in relation to the total average rate. The highest unemployment rate occurred among minors (42.8%). The lowest, among the elderly (aged 60 and over) with 4.8%.

The unemployment rate for the contingent with incomplete secondary education was higher, 22.4%. The index for those with incomplete higher education was 15.8%, more than twice the figure  for those with complete higher education, 6.4%.

The unemployment rate, disaggregated by color or race, showed that the rate for white persons (10.4%) remained under the national average. At the same time, the rate for black (17.8%) and brown persons (15.4%), remained above the national average.

PI (47.8%) records the highest underutilization rate in the 2nd quarter and SC (13.8%) records the lowest

In the 2nd quarter of 2020, the compound rate of labor underutilization (percentage of unemployed persons or time-related underemployed persons or persons in the potential workforce in relation to the extended workforce) was 29.1%, an increase against the previous quarter (24.4%). Piauí (47.8%) recorded the highest estimate, followed by Alagoas (46.4%), Maranhão (45.8%) and Sergipe (45.1%). On the other hand, Santa Catarina (13.8%), Paraná (19.3%) and mato Grosso (19.8%) recorded the lowest rate.

Compound Labor Underutilization Rate, by FUs (%) - Q2 2020 

FU Value
 Santa Catarina  13.8
 Paraná  19.3
 Mato Grosso  19.8
 Rio Grande do Sul  20.0
 Rondônia  20.7
 Mato Grosso do Sul  22.7
 Espírito Santo  22.8
 Goiás  24.6
 São Paulo  25.5
 Federal District 25.7
 Rio de Janeiro  27.2
 Minas Gerais  28.4
 Pará  28.8
Brazil 29.1
 Tocantins  29.5
 Amapá  29.6
 Acre  32.4
 Amazonas  34.1
 Ceará  35.9
 Pernambuco  36.2
 Roraima  36.6
 Rio Grande do Norte  40.2
 Paraíba  41.1
 Bahia  44.7
 Sergipe  45.1
 Maranhão  45.8
 Alagoas  46.4
 Piauí  47.8

Number of persons looking for jobs in 2 years or more decreases 26.5%

In the 2nd quarter of 2020, 2.5 million persons spent 2 years and over looking for a job, which represents a decrease of 26.5% in relation to the second quarter of 2019. Persons looking for jobs from 1 month to 1 year, the biggest amount (7.4 million persons) increased 27.9% in the comparison with the same quarter in the previous year. The other time brackets (less than a month and between 1 year and 2 years) also represent a decrease in the comparison.

AP has the highest proportion (36.7%) of self-employed while DF (19.1%) has the lowest

The percentage of Brazilian employed persons working as self-employed was 26%. The Federation Units with highest percentage were Amapá (35.7%), Paraíba (34.2%) and Pará (32.9%), whereas the lowest percentage were the Federal District (19.1%), São Paulo (22.3%) and Santa Catarina (23.6%).

Percentage of employed persons as self-employed, by FUs (%) - Q2 of 2020

FU Value
    Federal District 19.1
    São Paulo 22.3
    Santa Catarina 23.6
    Minas Gerais 23.7
    Mato Grosso do Sul 24.6
    Tocantins 24.9
    Rio Grande do Norte 25
    Paraná 25.4
    Espírito Santo 25.7
    Goiás 25.9
Brazil 26
    Alagoas 26.6
    Rio Grande do Sul 26.7
    Rio de Janeiro 26.9
    Mato Grosso 27.3
    Roraima 28
    Pernambuco 28.4
    Sergipe 28.7
    Piauí 29.6
    Bahia 29.6
    Ceará 30.1
    Acre 30.2
    Amazonas 31.7
    Rondônia 31.8
    Maranhão 32.1
    Pará 32.9
    Paraíba 34.2
    Amapá 36.7

MA (53.7%) records the lowest rate of workers with formal contracts and SC (90.5%) records the highest

The percentage of employed persons with formal contracts was 77.7% from the total of Brazilian private workers. The highest rates were in Santa Catarina (90.5%), Paraná (83.2%), São Paulo (83.2%) and the Federal District (84.1%), and the lowest were recorded in Maranhão (53.7%), Piauí (58.1%) and Pará (60.2%).

Percentual de empregados COM carteira entre os empregados do setor privado, por UFs (%) - 2º trimestre 2020

UF Valor
Maranhão 53,7
Piauí 58,1
Pará 60,2
Ceará 61,9
Sergipe 63,8
Roraima 65,0
Bahia 65,4
Tocantins 65,4
Alagoas 65,6
Paraíba 66,7
Rio Grande do Norte 66,9
Acre 67,0
Pernambuco 67,8
Amazonas 69,0
Rondônia 74,4
Amapá 75,0
Mato Grosso 76,5
Goiás 77,1
Espírito Santo 77,5
Mato Grosso do Sul 77,5
Brasil 77,7
Minas Gerais 78,0
Rio de Janeiro 82,8
São Paulo 83,2
Paraná 83,2
Distrito Federal 84,1
Rio Grande do Sul 84,3
Santa Catarina 90,5

Average earnings grows up to R$ 2,500

The real average earnings from all jobs, usually paid per month to employed persons with labor earnings, was estimated at R$2,500. It has increased both in relation to the previous quarter (R$2,389) and the same quarter of 2019 (R$2,339). In the comparison between the 1st and the 2nd quarter of 2020, the five regions recorded increases. The Federation Units with higher incomes were the Federal District (R$ 4,009), São Paulo (R$3,167) and Rio de Janeiro (R$3,162), whereas the lowest were, Maranhão (R$1,426), Piauí (R$1,495) and Alagoas (R$1,549).

The wage bill was of R$203.3 billion, a reduction in relation to the previous quarter (R$215.5 billion) and against the 2nd quarter 2019 (R$212.9 billion). The Southeast recorded the biggest real wage bill during the time series, recording R$106,046 million in the 2nd quarter of 2020. In relation to the 1st quarter of 2020, all the five regions suffered reduction, except the North region, which recorded stability. The Federation Units with highest wage bill were São Paulo (R$62.5 billion), Rio de Janeiro (R$20.8 billion) and Minas Gerais (R$18.9 billion), whilst the lowest numbers were recorded in Roraima (R$471 million), Acre (R$562 million) and Amapá (R$619 million).

PA (56.4%) records the highest informality rate in the 2nd quarter whilst SC (25.8%) records the lowest

The informality rate in the 2nd quarter of 2020 was 36.9% (30.8 million of persons) of employed persons. Among the Federation Units, the highest rates were recorded in Pará (56.4%), Maranhão (55.6%) and Amazonas (55.0%), whilst the lowest were in Santa Catarina (25.8%), the Federal District (26.0%) and São Paulo (28.6%). For the proxy data calculation of the informality rate of employed persons, it considers the following population: Employed in private sector without a formal contract; Domestic workers without a formal contract; Employers without a CNPJ registration; Self-employed without CNPJ registration; Contributing family workers.

Informality rate of the employemnet population, by FUs (%) -  Q2 of 2020 

FU Value
Pará 56.4
Maranhão 55.6
Amazonas 55.0
Piauí 53.6
Ceará 49.0
Acre 48.3
Sergipe 48.2
Bahia 48.1
Paraíba 47.2
Rondônia 46.6
Alagoas 46.4
Amapá 45.8
Pernambuco 45.4
Roraima 44.3
Tocantins 40.6
Rio Grande do Norte 40.2
Mato Grosso 39.1
Goiás 37.5
Espírito Santo 37.0
Brazil 36.9
Mato Grosso do Sul 36.9
Minas Gerais 35.7
Rio de Janeiro 33.3
Rio Grande do Sul 30.7
Paraná 30.4
São Paulo 28.6
Federal District 26.0
Santa Catarina 25.8