Quarterly Continuous PNAD: unemployment grows in 12 and remains stable in 15 FUs in the 1st quarter of 2020

May 15, 2020 09h00 AM | Last Updated: May 29, 2020 05h47 PM

The country's unemployment rate in the 1st quarter of 2020 was 12.2%, rising 1.3 percentage points in relation to the 4th quarter of 2019 (11.0%). In comparison with the same quarter of 2019 (12.7%), there was a decrease of 0.5 pp.

The highest rates were seen in Bahia (18.7%), Amapá (17.2%), Alagoas and Roraima (16.5%) and the lowest, in Santa Catarina (5.7%), Mato Grosso do Sul (7.6%) and Paraná (7.9%)

In the first quarter of 2020, the unemployment rate was estimated at 10.4% for men and 14.5% for women. The unemployment rate of self-declared white persons (9.8%) was below the national average; however, that of self-declared black (15.2%) and brown persons (14.0%) remained above it.

In the 1st quarter of 2020, the compound rate of labor underutilization - percentage of unemployed persons or time-related underemployed persons or persons in the potential workforce in relation to the extended workforce - was 24.4%. Piauí (45.0%) recorded the highest estimate, followed by Maranhão (41.9%) and Bahia (39.9%). On the other hand, the states with the lowest rates were: Santa Catarina (10.0%), Mato Grosso (14.8%) and Rio Grande do Sul (15.9%).

The number of the discouraged was of 4.8 million persons aged 14 and above. The biggest contingent was in Bahia (778 thousand), which accounted for 16.3% of the national contingent. The percentage of discouraged persons– in relation to the  workforce or discouraged population – was estimated at 4.3% in the 1st quarter of 2019, growing 0.2% in the comparison with the 4th quarter of 2019 and stable in relation to the 1st quarter o 2019. Maranhão (17.8%) and Alagoas (15.5%) registered the highest percentages and Santa Catarina (0.8%) and Rio de Janeiro (1.2%), the lowest ones.

The percentage of those employed with a formal contract was 75.0% of the total number of persons employed in the private sector in Brazil. The highest percentages were in Santa Catarina (88.8%), Paraná (82.1%), São Paulo and the Federal District, both at 81.2% and the lowest ones, in Maranhão (48.3%), Piauí (53.9%) and Pará (54.5%).

The percentage of the employed population in Brazil working as self-employed was 26.2%. The Federation Units with the highest percentages were Amapá (39.5%), Pará (35.2%) and Amazonas (34.3%) and the lowest ones were in the Federal District (19.3%), Santa Catarina (22.9%) and São Paulo (21.9%).

In relation to the length of job search in Brazil, in the first quarter of 2020, 45.5% of the unemployed persons were from one month to less than one year searching for a job, 23.9%, two years and over, 12.6%, from one year to less than two years and 18.0%, less than one month. In Brazil, 3.1 million persons spend 2 years and over looking for a job; this estimate represent a decrease of 7.4% in relation to the first quarter of 2019.

The informality rate for Brazil stayed at 39.9% of the employed population (36.8 million persons). Among the Federation Units, the highest annual average rates were posted in Pará (61.4%) and Maranhão (61.2%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (26.6%) and the Federal District (29.8%).

Bahia (18.7%) has the highest unemployment rate of Q1 2020


The Brazilian unemployment rate in the 1st quarter of 2020 was of 12.2%, rising 1.3 percentage points in relation to the 4th quarter of 2019 (11.0%). In the comparison with same quarter of 2019 (12.7%), it has decreased 0.5 pp. The highest rates were recorded in Bahia (18.7%), Amapá and Roraima (16.5%), and the lowest in Santa Catarina (5.7%), Mato Grosso do Sul (6.5%) and Paraná (7.9%).


Regarding the statiscally significant changes in relation to previous quarter, the unemployment rate rose in 12 Federation Units, remaining stable in the others. The sharpest highs were recorded in Maranhão (3.9 pp), Alagoas (2.9 pp) and Rio Grande do Sul (2.7 pp).

In relation to the same quarter of 2019, the unemployment has increased only in Paraíba (2.7 pp), and decreased in Acre (-4.5 pp), Mato Grosso do Sul (-1.8 pp), Pernambuco (-1.6 pp), Santa Catarina (-1.6 pp), São Paulo (-1.3 pp) and Paraná (-0.9 pp). The other Federation Units were stable.

Unemployment rate of persons aged 14 and over, by UF (%) - Q1 2020

FU Value
Santa Catarina 5.7
Mato Grosso do Sul 7.6
Paraná 7.9
Rio Grande do Sul 8.3
Rondônia 8.4
Mato Grosso 8.5
Pará 10.6
Espírito Santo 11.1
Tocantins 11.2
Goiás 11.3
Minas Gerais 11.5
Ceará 12.1
Brazil 12.2
São Paulo 12.2
Acre 13.5
Federal District 13.6
Piauí 13.7
Paraíba 13.8
Amazonas 14.5
Pernambuco 14.5
Rio de Janeiro 14.5
Rio Grande do Norte 15.4
Sergipe 15.5
Maranhão 16.1
Roraima 16.5
Alagoas 16.5
Amapá 17.2
Bahia 18.7

Unemployment rate achieved 34.1% among the northeastern youngsters

In the 1st quarter of 2020, the unemployment rate was estimated at 10.4% for man and 14.5% for woman. It is worth mentioning that the total rate for this period was 12.2%.

The unemployment rate among youngsters aged between 18 and 24 years, (27.1%) presented a high level in relation to the total average rate (12.2%). This behavior was verified both for Brazil and for the five Major Regions, with a highlight to the Northeast, where the estimate was 34.1%.

The unemployment rate for persons with incomplete secondary education, 20.4%, was superior to that verified for persons with other education levels. For persons with incomplete higher education, the estimated rate was 14.0%, more than twice as much of those with complete higher education, 6.3%.

The unemployment rate by color or race showed that the rate for white persons (9.85%) was lower than the national average; however, for blacks (15.2%) and browns (14.0%), the rate was higher. In the 1st quarter of 2012, when the average rate was estimated at 7.9%, blacks, browns and whites corresponded to 9.6%, 9.1% and 6.6%, respectively.

Piauí (45.0%) has the highest underutilization rate of Q1

In the 1st quarter of 2020, the compound labor underutilization rate (percentage of unemployed, time-related underemployed and potential workforce in relation to the extended workforce) was of 24.4%. Piauí (45.0%) recorded the highest estimate, followed by Maranhão (41.9%) and Bahia (39.9%). On the other hand, the states with the lowest rates were: Santa Catarina (10.0%), Mato Grosso (14.8%) and Rio Grande do Sul (15.9%).

Compound labor underutilization rate of persons aged 14 and over, by Federation Units (%) - Q1 2020

FU Value
Santa Catarina 10.0
Mato Grosso 14.8
Rio Grande do Sul 15.9
Paraná 16.1
Mato Grosso do Sul 17.5
Rondônia 18.1
Espírito Santo 18.9
Goiás 19.6
São Paulo 20.3
Rio de Janeiro 21.0
Federal District 22.9
Minas Gerais 23.4
Brazil 24.4
Tocantins 26.0
Pará 27.2
Amazonas 28.5
Pernambuco 29.8
Ceará 30.3
Amapá 30.5
Roraima 30.8
Acre 32.1
Paraíba 35.1
Sergipe 35.9
Rio Grande do Norte 36.5
Alagoas 38.2
Bahia 39.9
Maranhão 41.9
Piauí 45.0

Amapá (39.5%) has the highest number of self-employed workers

The percentage of employed persons in the country working as self-employed was 26.2%. The Federation Units with the highest percentage were Amapá (39.5%), Pará (35.2%) and Amazonas (34.3%) and the lowest were the Federal District (19.3%), São Paulo (21.9%) and Santa Catarina (22.9%).

Percentage of persons aged 14 and over, employed in the week of reference as self-employed, by Federation Unit (%) - Q1 2020

FU Value
Federal Ditrict 19.3
São Paulo 21.9
Santa Catarina 22.9
Paraná 24.4
Mato Grosso do Sul 24.7
Minas Gerais 24.9
Goiás 25.4
Espírito Santo 25.6
Rio Grande do Sul 25.9
Mato Grosso 26.1
Brazil 26.2
Tocantins 27.1
Alagoas 27.3
Sergipe 27.8
Roraima 27.9
Rio Grande do Norte 28.5
Rio de Janeiro 28.6
Pernambuco 29
Ceará 29.1
Bahia 29.7
Rondônia 30.2
Paraíba 30.4
Piauí 32.5
Acre 32.7
Maranhão 32.8
Amazonas 34.3
Pará 35.2
Amapá 39.5

Santa Catarina (88.8%) has the highest percentage of workers with formal contract in the private sector

The percentage of workers with formal contract was 75.0% of the total of employed persons in the Brazilian private sector. The highest percentage were in Santa Catarina (88.8%), Paraná (82.1%), São paulo and the Federal District, both with 81.2%, and the lowest were in Maranhão (48.3%), Piauí (53.9%) and Pará (54.5%).

Percentage of persons aged 14 and over, employed in the week of referencee
WITH a formal labor contract
in the private sector, by Federation Unit (%) - Q1 2020

FU Value
Maranhão 48.3
Piauí 53.9
Pará 54.5
Ceará 59.3
Paraíba 60.0
Bahia 60.0
Sergipe 60.6
Tocantins 61.8
Alagoas 63.7
Roraima 64.7
Rio Grande do Norte 65.0
Amazonas 65.1
Pernambuco 65.4
Acre 65.6
Rondônia 69.4
Amapá 72.0
Goiás 72.7
Espírito Santo 73.4
Mato Grosso do Sul 74.8
Brazil 75.0
Mato Grosso 76,6
Minas Gerais 76.7
Rio de Janeiro 80.7
Rio Grande do Sul 80.9
Federal District 81.2
São Paulo 81.2
Paraná 82.1
Santa Catarina 88.8

In Brazil, 3.1 million persons go job searching for 2 years or more

In relation to the searching period, in Brazil, 45.5% of the unemployed persons were from one month to less than one year searching for a job; 23.9%, two years or more, 12.6%, one to less than two years and 18.0%, for less than one month. In Brazil, 3.1 million persons go searching for a job for 2 years or more; this estimate represents decrease of 7.4% in relation to the first quarter of 2019.

Persons aged 14 and over, unemployed in the week of reference,
by length of search - BRAZIL - Q1 2020

Pará (61.4%) has the highest informality rate of Q1 2020

The informality rate in the 1st quarter of 2020 was of 39.9% (36.8 million persons) of employed persons. Among the Federal Units, the highest rates were recorded in Pará (61.4%) and Maranhão (61.2%) and the lowest in Santa Catarina (26.6%) and the Federal District (29.8%). For the proxy data calculation of the population informality rate, the following populations were considered: Employed in private sector without formal contract; Domestic worker without a formal contract; Employer without a CNPJ registration; Self-employed without CNPJ registration; Contributingfamily workers.

Informality rate of population aged 14 and over,
employed in the week of reference, by Federation Unit (%) - Q1 2020

FU Value
Pará 61.4
Maranhão 61.2
Amazonas 58.9
Piauí 58.8
Ceará 53.8
Bahia 52.9
Amapá 52.5
Acre 51.9
Sergipe 51.8
Paraíba 51.3
Pernambuco 48.4
Rondônia 48.3
Alagoas 47.2
Roraima 45.1
Rio Grande do Norte 45.0
Tocantins 43.9
Espírito Santo 41.5
Goiás 40.4
Brazil 39.9
Mato Grosso 39.8
Mato Grosso do Sul 39.1
Minas Gerais 38.1
Rio de Janeiro 37.3
Rio Grande do Sul 33.0
Paraná 31.9
São Paulo 30.5
Federal District 29.8
Santa Catarina 26.6

In the quarterly comparison, average earning grows 2.2% in the Southeast region

The real average earnings from all jobs, usually monthly received, by persons aged 14 and over, employed in the week of reference, with work income, was estimated at R$ 2,398, in Brazil. This result showed stability both in relation to the previous quarter (R$ 2,371) and in relation to the same quarter in the previous year (R$ 2,378). Only the Southeast Region (R$ 2.776) had increase of the real average earnings ( 2.2%) in the quarterly comparison, while the others remained stable.