Quarterly Continuous PNAD: unemployement retreats in 9 of 27 FUs in Q4 2019

February 14, 2020 09h00 AM | Last Updated: February 17, 2020 04h10 PM

The unemployment rate in Brazil was 11.0% in the fourth quarter of 2019, falling 0.8 percentage points in relation to the quarter between July and September (11.8%). It dropped 0.6 p.p. in the comparison with the same quarter of 2018 (11.6%). The annual average rate retreated from 12.3% in 2018 to 11.9% in 2019.

The highest rates were registered in Bahia (16.4%), Amapá (15.6%), Sergipe and Roraima (14.8%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (5.3%), Mato Grosso (6.4%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (6.5%). Among the annual averages, the highest rates were in Amapá (17.4%) and Bahia (17.2%) and the lowest one in Santa Catarina (6.1%), followed by Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso, all of them with 8.0%.

In the fourth quarter of 2019, the compound rate of underutilization of the workforce – percentage of unemployed persons or time-related underemployed persons or persons in the potential workforce in relation to the extended workforce – was 23.0%. Piauí (42.0%) recorded the highest estimate, followed by Bahia (39.0%) and Maranhão (38.2%). On the other hand, the states with the lowest rates were: Santa Catarina (10.2%), Mato Grosso (12.9%) and Rio Grande do Sul (14.6%).

The annual average underutilization rate stayed at 24.2% in 2019, slightly less than that of 2018 (24.3%). Among the Federation Units, the highest annual average rates were posted in Piauí (42.0%) and Maranhão (40.5%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (10.9%), Mato Grosso (15.0%) and Rio Grande do Sul (15.6%).  

The number of discouraged was 4.6 million persons aged 14 years and over in the fourth quarter of 2019. The biggest contingent was in Bahia (774 thousand), which accounted for 16.8% of the national contingent.

The percentage of discouraged persons – in relation to the workforce or discouraged population – was estimated at 4.2% in the fourth quarter of 2019 and remained stable in both comparisons. Maranhão and Alagoas (both with 17.3%) registered the highest percentages and Santa Catarina (0.8%) and Rio de Janeiro (1.2%), the lowest ones.

The percentage of those employed with a formal contract was 74.0% of the total number of persons employed in the private sector in Brazil. The highest percentages were in Santa Catarina (87.7%), Paraná (81.2%) and Rio Grande do Sul (80.7%) and the lowest ones, in Maranhão (47.2%), Piauí (52.5%) and Pará (52.6%).

The percentage of the employed population in Brazil working as self-employed was 26.0%. The Federation Units with the highest percentages were Amapá (37.3%), Pará (35.9%) and Amazonas (32.6%) and the lowest ones were in the Federal District (19.4%), Santa Catarina (22.5%) and São Paulo (21.4%).

In relation to the time of searching  in Brazil, 44.8% of the unemployed persons were from one month to less than one year searching for a job, 25.0%, two years and over, 14.2%, from one year to less than two years and 16.0%, less than one month. In Brazil, 2.9 million persons were searching for a job for two years or more.

The annual average rate of informality in 2019 for Brazil stayed at 41.1% of the employed population. Among the Federation Units, the highest annual average rates were posted in Pará (62.4%) and Maranhão (60.5%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (27.3%) and the Federal District (29.6%).

In 2019, the annual average rate of contribution to social security from all jobs of the employed persons aged 14 years and over in Brazil was 62.9%. The highest annual average rate was registered in Santa Catarina (81.2%) and the lowest one, in Pará (38.2%). The support material of this release is on the right side.

Bahia (16.4%) registered the highest unemployment rate in Q4 2019

The unemployment rate in Brazil was 11.0% in the fourth quarter of 2019, falling 0.8 percentage points in relation to the quarter between July and September (11.8%). Compared with the same quarter of 2018, it dropped 0.6 p.p. The highest rates were registered in Bahia (16.4%), Amapá (15.6%), Sergipe and Roraima (14.8%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (5.3%), Mato Grosso (6.4%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (6.5%).

Considering the statistically-significant changes in relation to the previous quarter, the rate dropped in nine out of the 27 Federation Units, remaining stable in the others. The drops were reported in the states of Maranhão (-2.0 p.p.), Pará (-2.0 p.p.), Alagoas (-1.8 p.p.), Pernambuco (-1.8 p.p.), Rio Grande do Sul (-1.7 p.p.), Paraná (-1.7 p.p.), Mato Grosso (-1.6 p.p.), Ceará (-1.2 p.p.) and Rio de Janeiro (-0.8 p.p.).

It dropped in seven FUs in relation to the same quarter of 2018: Amapá (-4.1 p.p.), Alagoas (-2.3 p.p.), Maranhão (-1.9 p.p.), Pernambuco (-1.4 p.p.), Rio de Janeiro (-1.1 p.p.), São Paulo (-0.9 p.p.) and Santa Catarina (-1.0 p.p.) and increased only in Goiás (2.2 p.p.), remaining stable in the others.

Unemployment rates by FU, in Q4 2019,
in relation to Q3 2019 and Q4 2018

Piauí (42.0%) has the highest underutilization rate in Q4

The compound underutilization rate of the workforce was 23.0% in the fourth quarter of 2019. Piauí (42.0%) recorded the highest estimate, followed by Bahia (39.0%) and Maranhão (38.2%). On the other hand, the states where there were the lowest rates were: Santa Catarina (10.2%), Mato Grosso (12.9%) and Rio Grande do Sul (14.6%).

Compound Underutilization Rate of the Workforce - Q4 2019

Amapá (37.3%) has the highest proportion of self-employed workers

The percentage of the employed population in Brazil working as self-employed was 26.0%. The Federation Units with the highest percentages were Amapá (37.3%), Pará (35.9%) and Maranhão (32.7%) and the lowest ones were in the Federal District (19.4%), Santa Catarina (22.5%) and São Paulo (21.4%).

Percentage of persons aged 14 years and over, employed in the reference week as self employed, by Federation Unit - Q4 2019
Amapá 37.3
Pará 35.9
Maranhão 32.7
Amazonas 32.6
Acre 32.1
Piauí 32.0
Paraíba 31.5
Bahia 30.0
Rondônia 29.7
Ceará 29.1
Pernambuco 29.1
Rio Grande do Norte 28.4
Rio de Janeiro 28.3
Sergipe 27.9
Roraima 27.5
Alagoas 27.0
Mato Grosso 26.1
Brazil 26.0
Tocantins 25.7
Goiás 25.6
Espírito Santo 25.3
Rio Grande do Sul 25.2
Minas Gerais 24.9
Paraná 24.6
Mato Grosso do Sul 22.5
Santa Catarina 22.3
São Paulo 21.4
Federal District 19.4

Federal District

19,4

Santa Catarina (87.7%) has the highest percentage of workers with a formal contract

The percentage of those employed with a formal contract was 74.0% of the total number of persons employed in the private sector in Brazil. The highest percentages were in Santa Catarina (87.7%), Paraná (81.2%) and Rio Grande do Sul (80.7%) and the lowest ones, in Maranhão (47.6%), Piauí (52.5%) and Pará (52.6%).

On the other hand, the highest percentage of workers without a formal contract in the private sector was in Maranhão (52.4%), the only Federation Unit in which this percentage was higher the half of the total number of employed persons in the private sector.

Percentage of persons aged 14 years and over, employed in the reference week as an employee WITH a formal contract among those employed in the private sector, by Federation Unit - Q4 2019
Santa Catarina 87.7
Paraná 81.2
Rio Grande do Sul 80.7
São Paulo 80.5
Rio de Janeiro 79.7
Federal District 79.3
Mato Grosso 76.8
Minas Gerais 74.7
Mato Grosso do Sul 74.0
Brazil 74.0
Espírito Santo 73.4
Goiás 71.7
Rondônia 69.7
Acre 69.4
Alagoas 65.7
Amazonas 65.4
Pernambuco 64.6
Amapá 64.2
Roraima 62.2
Rio Grande do Norte 60.9
Paraíba 60.0
Tocantins 59.8
Sergipe 58.4
Ceará 58.0
Bahia 57.7
Pará 52.6
Piauí 52.5
Maranhão 47.6

Unemployment rate was 9.2% for men and 13.1% for women

The unemployment rate in Brazil was 11.0% in the fourth quarter of 2019, though with significant differences between men (9.2%) and women (13.1%). Higher rates among women were reported in all the Major Regions. Women remained as the most part of the population out of the workforce, both in Brazil (64.7%) and in all the regions.

The percentage of women in the unemployed population was 53.8% in the fourth quarter of 2019.  Women also prevailed among the Major Regions, highlighted by the Central-West (55.8%).

In the fourth quarter of 2019, the employment-population ratio of men in Brazil was estimated at 65.0% and at 46.2% for women. The behavior of this indicator between men and women was detected in the five Major Regions, highlighted by the North Region, in which the difference between men and women was the highest one (23.9 p.p.), and by the South, which recorded the lowest difference (17.1 p.p.).

Unemployment rates of blacks (13.5%) and browns (12.6%) surpassed the Brazilian average

In the fourth quarter of 2019, the unemployment rate of those who self declared white persons (8.7%) stood below the national average, whereas that of blacks (13.5%) and browns (12.6%) stood above it. While the average rate was estimated at 7.9% in the first quarter of 2012, that of black persons corresponded to 9.6%, brown persons, 9.1% and white persons, 6.6%.

The contingent of unemployed persons in the first quarter of 2012 was estimated at 7.6 million persons for Brazil, led by brown persons (48.9%), followed by the white (40.2%) and black (10.2%) persons. This contingent rose to 11.6 million persons in the fourth quarter of 2019, changing the share of brown persons to 51.8%, reducing that of white persons to 34.2% and increasing that of black persons to 13.0%.

In the quarterly comparison, average earnings remained stable in 25 of 27 FUs

In the fourth quarter of 2019, the usual real average earnings from all jobs of persons aged 14 and over, employed in the week of reference, with income from work, was estimated at R$2,340, remaining stable in both comparisons.

At the Federation Unit level, Piauí (R$1,345) and Roraima (R$2,205) reduced by 5.8% and 7.7%, respectively, in the quarterly comparison. Compared with the fourth quarter of 2018, Alagoas (R$1,501) reduced 8.8% and Rio de Janeiro (R$2,816) increased 5.1%.

In Brazil, 2.9 million persons were searching for a job for two years or more

In relation to the time of searching in Brazil, 44.8% of the unemployed persons were from one month to less than one year searching for a job, 25.0%, two years and over, 14.2%, from one year to less than two years and 16.0%, less than one month. In Brazil, 2.9 million persons searched for a job for two years or more.

Time search for a job 4th Quarter
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Less than 1 month  832  806  763  955 1 283 1 513 1 811 1 861
Between 1 month and less than 1 year 3 563 3 104 3 475 4 726 6 251 5 740 5 351 5 210
Between 1 year and less than 2 years  968  976 1 033 1 692 2 305 2 238 1 876 1 650
2 years and over 1 247 1 127 1 138 1 646 2 439 2 776 3 113 2 910
Time search for a job Percentage change
2013/
2012
2014/
2013
2015/
2014
2016/
2015
2017/
2016
2018/
2017
2018/
2019
2019/
2012
Less than 1 month -3.1 -5.3 25.2 34.3 17.9 19.7 2.8 123.7
Between 1 month and less than 1 year -12.9 12.0 36.0 32.3 -8.2 -6.8 -2.6 46.2
Between 1 year and less than 2 years 0.8 5.8 63.8 36.2 -2.9 -16.2 -12.0 70.5
2 years and over -9.6 1.0 44.6 48.2 13.8 12.1 -6.5 133.4

Pará posted the highest average annual informality rate in 2019 (62.4%)

The average informality rate for Brazil stayed at 41.1% of the employed population (38.4 million persons) in 2019. Among the Federation Units, the highest annual average rates were posted in Pará (62.4%) and Maranhão (60.5%) and the lowest ones in Santa Catarina (27.3%) and the Federal District (29.6%).

Taxa média anual de informalidade - 2019

Santa Catarina registered the highest average annual rate of contribution to social security (81.2%)

In 2019, the annual average rate of contribution to social security from all jobs of the employed persons aged 14 years and over in Brazil was 62.9%. The highest annual average rate was registered in Santa Catarina (81.2%) and the lowest one, in Pará (38.2%).