2018 Vital Statistics: same-sex marriages increase 61.7% whithin a year
December 04, 2019 10h00 AM | Last Updated: December 09, 2019 11h54 AM
Despite the 1.6% reduction in the total civil marriages between 2017 and 2018 (1,070,376 to 1,053,467), the number of same-sex marriages increased 61.7% in the same period, going from 5,887 to 9,520. Female same-sex marriages represented 58.4% of unions. Among the regions, the greatest increase was in the Northeast (85.2%) and the lowest, in the Central-West (42.5%).
Divorces, in turn, increased 3.2% between 2017 and 2018, going from 373,216 to 385,246. By type of family arrangement, 46.6% of the dissolutions were in families with children aged below 18. Of the 166,523 divorces granted for couples with minor kids, 24.4% resulted in a shared custody, whereas the majority (65.4%) had women as the ones responsible for the custody.
In 2018, of the total 2.98 million birth certificates issued in notary offices in Brazil, 2.89 million related to births occurred and registered within the same year and of children whose mothers' Federation Units of residence had been informed. Against 2017, there was a rise of nearly 1.0% in those certificates; however, South and Southeast, had decreases of 0.1% and 0.4%, respectively, whereas Northeast (2.6%), North (2.3%) and Central-West (2.0%) had increases.
From 1998 to 2018, the percentage of child born of mothers younger than 24 years old fell (51.8% to 39.4%). Whereas in the age groups above 30 years old there was increase (24.1% to 36.6%). In the North Region, there was a larger number of certificates of children whose mothers were up to the age of 24. On the other hand, both South and Southeast had more births from women aged 30 to 39.
In 2018, nearly 1.28 million deaths were seen. Whereas the mortality of children under 5 years old represented 2.8% of the records, deaths of persons aged 65 or older represented 59.8% of the total, an evidence of the population ageing in Brazil.
In the age group from 20 to 24 years old, deaths by external causes (murders, suicides, car accidents, etc.) reached approximately 11 times more men than women. From 2008 to 2018, mortality from 15 to 24-year-old men due to external causes increased in 16 of the country's 27 Federation Units, with the highest increases in the states of the North and Northeast.
In 2019, the IBGE adopted a new methodology for the calculation of under-registration of births and deaths, not comparable with the previous methodology. In 2017, the estimated under-registration of births was of 2.6%, while under-registration of deaths was of 4.1%.
The Vital Statistics survey gathers information on births, marriages, deaths and stillbirths reported by Civil Registry Offices of Individuals, as well as divorce reported by Family Courts, Civil Courts and Notary Offices. For further information, see the complete publication and the support material.
Number of marriages decreases 1.6% between 2017 and 2018
In the Brazilian population, less people are getting married. In 2018 1,053,467 civil marriages were recorded, against 1,070,376 in 2017 – a reduction of 1.6%. There was an increase just in the Northeast (0.8%) and Central-West (3.3%), the other regions had decrease.
However, the number of same-sex civil marriages increased 61.7%, from 5,887 in 2017 to 9,520 in 2018, with female same-sex marriage representing 58.4% of this rate. The Central-West recorded the lowest increase percentage of same-sex marriages (42.5%) and the Northeast, the highest percentage (85.2%).
In Brazil, for every 1,000 inhabitants at the usual age for marriage, on average, 6.4 persons married legally in 2018. The difference of the average age for single heterosexual persons to marry was of approximately 2 years: Men marry, on average, at thirty years-old, and women, at twenty-eight. Among single same-sex spouses, the average age to marry was approximately thirty-four years old for men and thirty-three for women.
Number of divorces increases 3.2% between 2017 and 2018
The number of divorces granted at first instance courts or by court deed increased 3.2% between 2017 and 2018, changing from 373,216 to 385,246. So, the general rate of divorces increased from 2.5% (2017) to 2.6% (2018). Among the regions, the Southeast recorded the highest divorce rate (3.1%), which means nearly 3 divorces for each 1,000 inhabitants aged 20 and over.
The length of marriage also decreased: in 2008, the marriages lasted, on average, 17 years, changing to 14 years in 2018. Moreover, men use to divorce at the 43 years old, whereas women, at 40, on average.
Regarding the type of family arrangements, 46.6% of the dissolutions were among families with minor children only; 27.8% among couples without children; 17.3% among families with children of legal age and 7.8% among families with minors and children of legal age.
Shared-custody divorces increase, but mother's custody still prevails
There was a significant increase in the percentage of divorces granted at first instance among couples with minor kids whose sentence involves shared-custody. Of the 166,523 divorces granted to couples with minors in 2018, 24.4% involved shared custody. In 2014, this proportion was of 7.5%.
Even so, women still prevail as custody holders, reaching 65.4%.
South and Southeast have decrease in birth registrations in 2018
OF the total 2,983,567 birth certificates issued in Notary Offices in Brazil in 2018, nearly 3% (83,716) were relative to persons born in previous years or with unknown year of birth.
Considering just the births occurred and recorded in 2018 with Federation Unit of the mother known, there was a growth of 1.0% over 2017, going from 2,867,701 to 2,895,062.
There was a growth in the number of births recorded in the Northeast (2.6%), North (2.3%) and Central-West (2.0%), but decreased in the Southeast (-0.4%) and South (-0.1%). The greatest highs were seen in Roraima (13.4%), Mato Grosso (8.4%), Amapá (5.3%) and Maranhão (5.2%). However, the Southeast still concentrates more births: 39.4% of the total of the country, followed by the Northeast, with 28.3%; South, with 13.7%; North, with 10.2%; and Central-West, with 8.4%.
As to the month of the registered children, May was the birth champion (264,988) and November had the lowest index (222,722). The monthly average stood at 241,654 registrations.
Women are becoming mothers later
There has been a progressive change in the age structure of the women who have had children in the last two decades. From 1998 to 2018, the percentage so births from mothers aged up to 24 fell, whereas there was a high in the age brackets between 30 and 44 years.
In 1998, the births recorded were of children whose mothers were young, with 51.8%of the births from mothers ages up to 24 years old. In 2008, there was a relative decrease of births from mothers at this age group, representing 47.9%, and, in 2018, it fell to 39.4%. In the age groups from 25 to 29 years old, the oscillation in the period was less intense, with increase from 1998 to 2008, from 24.2% to 25.2%, and decrease to 23.7% in 2018. From 30 years old and over, the proportion of births increases, leaving the level of 24.1% in 1998 to reach 36.6% in 2018.
The different regions of Brazil show peculiar and unequal realities, not only in social and economic terms, but also in terms of demographic aspects. In the North region, there was a greater index of birth registrations of children whose mothers were aged up to 24. On the other hand, both in the Southeast and in the South Region, there was the greatest proportions of children whose mothers were aged between 30 and 39.
Infant mortality keeps falling and reaches 2.8%
Between 2008 and 2018, the volume of deaths recorded in the same year, with information of sex and age, went from 1,055,672 to 1,279,948, a rise of nearly 21%. Analyzing the time series since 1978 by age, we can see a significant decrease of the proportion of deaths of children below one and below five years old, from 26.9% and 32.6% to 2.4% and 2.8%, respectively. On the other hand, with the population aging, the deaths of persons ages 65 and over went from 30.1% in 1978 to 59.8% of the total deaths recorded in 2018.
From 1988 to 2018, male overmortality by external causes from 20 to 24 years old increases 46.6%
Male overmortality due to external causes (murder, suicides, accidents, drownings, falls, etc) in the group aged 20 to 24 was of nearly 11.0 times in 2018. That means a male individual at the age of 20 had 11 times more chance of not turning 25 than a female person. In 1988, the value was 7.3 times, showing an increase of 46.6% in the period.
However, considering just the deaths due to natural causes in the group ages 20 to 24, a man aged 20 is 2.2 times more likely not to turn 25 than a woman at his age.
New methodology points to drop in under-registration of births and deaths
In 2019, the IBGE adopted a new methodology for measuring under-registration of births and deaths for the years of 2015, 2016, 2017. The new methodology is not comparable with the previous methodology, whose time series was completed in 2014.
The estimated under-registration of births was 2.6% in 2017, indicating that 97.4% of births in 2017 were either registered in the same year or until the first quarter of 2018. In 2016, the estimated under-registration of births was 3.2% and, in 2015, 4.2%.
The under-registration of deaths was estimated at 4.1% in 2017, indicating that 95.9% of deaths in 2017 were either recorded in the same year or until the first quarter of 2018. In 2016, the estimate of under-registration of deaths was 4.4% and, in 2015, 4.9%.
For more information, please access the System of Vital Statistics on the IBGE website.