Census of Agriculture 2017: employed population in agricultural establishments decreases by 8.8%
October 25, 2019 10h00 AM | Last Updated: October 31, 2019 05h05 PM
In 2017, there were 15.1 million employed persons in agricultural establishments. That figure meant a decrease by 1.5 million persons against the previous Census of Agriculture (2006).
In Family Farming establishments, the employed population fell by 2,166 million persons, whereas in those not characterized as such, the opposite was observed: an increase by 702.9 thousand workers.
About 77% of the establishments were classified as of the Family Farming type and accounted for 23% of the value of production, using a total 23% of the total area of establishments. A total 10.1 million persons worked in Family Farming. That represented 67% of the workforce in agricultural establishments.
The average number os employed persons per establishment fell from 3.2, in 2006, to 3.0 persons, in 2017. On the other hand, the number of tractor trucks increased by 49.9% in the period and reached 1.22 million units.
From 2006 to 2017, workforce hired for agricultural establihments with intermediation by third parties (builders, cooperatives and companies), with a change from 251,652 to 611,624 in the period.
The 2017 Census of Agriculture enumerated 5,073,324 agricultural establishments in Brazil, with a decrease of 2.0% against the 2006 edition. The area of establishments increased by 5.8% in the period and hit 351,289,816 hectares. All the Major Regions recorded increases in area, except the Northeast. In the South, that increase was observed despite the reduction in the number of establishments. Considering only the 4,996,287 establishments with area in 2017, there was a 1.5% increase versus 2006 (4,920,617 establishments).
In 2017, Brazil had 51,203 establishments with 1 thousand hectares or more, which represented about 1.0% of the total, but concentrated 47.6% of the area used by the establishments. In 2006, participation amounted to 45%.
Since 2006, there has been an increase, 52.6%, in the number of establishments that made use of irrigation. The total irrigated area increased by 47.6%, having changed from 4.5 million to 6.69 million hectares, in the period.
The number of producers that reported having access to the Internet increased by 1,900%, with a change from 75 thousand, in 2006, to 1,430.156 in 2017, being 659 thousand of the broadband type and 909 thousand, of the mobile Internet type.
About 1.7 million producers reported having used pesticides in 2017, an increase of 20.5% in relation to 2006. In the time series of censuses of agriculture, that figure varied significantly, and reached its peak (almost 2 million) in 1980, and its lowest level (almost 1.4 million) in 2006.
For the first time, the Census of Agriculture surveyed aspects of color or race of producers: 52.8% of them were black or brown and 45.4% were white, in a similar distribution as in the rest of the country, according to the Continuous PNAD . The participation of women and elderly persons as directors of establishments recorded an increase, and reached, respectively, 18.7% and 23.2%. In 2006, women represented 12.7% of producers, and the elderly, 17.5%.
|Census of Agriculture 2006|
|Total, family farming||Establishments||Total area (ha)||Employed persons|
|Total||5 175 636||100.0%||333 680 037||100.0%||16 568 205||100.0%|
|RULES IN EFFECT IN 2017|
|Non-family farming||870 531||16.8%||252 411 258||75.6%||4 286 660||25.9%|
|Family farming-LAW -11326 -2017||4 305 105||83.2%||81 268 779||24.4%||12 281 545||74.1%|
|Census of Agriculture 2017|
|Total, family farming||Establishments||Area (ha)||Employed persons|
|Total||5 073 324||100.0%||351 289 816||100.0%||15 105 125||100.0%|
|RULES IN EFFECT IN 2017|
|Non-family farming||1 175 916||23.2%||270 398 732||77.0%||4 989 566||33.0%|
|Family farming||3 897 408||76.8%||80 891 084||23.0%||10 115 559||67.0%|
|Census of Agriculture: Changes from 2006 to 2017|
|Total, family farming||Establishments||Area (ha)||Employed persons|
|Total||-102 312||-2.0%||17 609 779||5.3%||-1 463 080||-8.8%|
|Non-family farming||305 385||35.1%||17 987 474||7.1%||702 906||16.4%|
|Family farming||-407 697||-9.5%||-377 695||-0.5%||-2 165 986||-17.6%|
Number of employed persons falls by 1.5 million in 11 years and number of tractor trucks increases by 49.9%
On 30/09/2017, there were 15,105,125 employed persons in agricultural establishments, an average of 3.0 persons per establishment, among producers and persons related to them, temporray and permanent workers. Producers and workers related to them amounted to 73.5% (11,101,533) of the persons employed on that date.
In comparison with the 2006 Census of Agriculture, there was decrease by 1,463,080 persons in the total empoyed persons, which amounted to 16,568,205 on Dec/31 that year. The average of employed persons per establishment also fell, from 3.2 persos, in 2006, to 2.97, in 2017.
In the establishments of Family Farming, the employed population was reduced by 2.166 million persons. Nevertheless, in the establishments not characterized that way, the offer of jobs followed an opposite trend: from 2006 to 2017, the employed population in that type of establishment received 702.9 thousand more workers.
77% of the establishments were classified as of the family farming type
In the 2017 Census of Agriculture, 3,897,408 establishments fulfilled the criteria and were classified as of the family farming type, which represents 77% of the agricultural establishments surveyed by the Census. They occupied an area of 80.9 million hectares, that is, 23% of the total area of the Brazilian agricultural establishments.
In those classified as of the family farming type, the total employed persons on 30/09/2017 was 10.1 million, 67% of the total; in those establishments, the average of employed persons was 2.6. Family farming was responsible for 23% of the total production of the establishments.
Mechanization increases by almost 50%
Differently from employed persons, which recorded decrease, the number of tractor-trucks in agricultural establishments increased by 49.9%, or 409,189 units more versus the 2006 Census of Agriculture, reaching 1,229,907 units on September 30, 2017. The number of establishments using that type of machine increased by more than 200 thousand, and reached a total 734,280 producers in 2017.
Workforce hired with intermediation of third parties records increase of 143%
The workforce hired by intermediation of third parties, such as buiders, cooperatives and companies, changed from 251,652 persons, in 2006, to 611,624 in 2017. That was an increase of 143%.
Among the modes of hiring, the most frequent was by means of builders, with 497,247 establishments hiring workforce, this way, or 9.8% of the total. That mode of hiring increased by 108% in relation to 2006.
|Time Series of the Censuses of Agriculture - 1975/2017 - Brazil|
|Establishments||4 993 252||5 159 851||5 801 809||4 859 865||5 175 636||5 073 324|
|Total area (ha)||323 896 082||364 854 421||374 924 929||353 611 246||333 680 037||351 289 816|
|Employed persons||20 345 692||21 163 735||23 394 919||17 930 890||16 568 205||15 105 125|
|Tractor trucks||323 113||545 205||665 280||803 742||820 718||1 229 907|
|Establishments using pesticides||1 456 127||1 981 269||1 947 786||1 714 169||1 396 077||1 681 740|
|Establishments using pesticides (%)||29,2||38,4||33,6||35,3||27,0||33,1|
|Establishments adopting irrigation||117 921||154 763||191 463||236 342||329 073||502 379|
|Establishments adopting irrigation (%)||2,4||3,0||3,3||4,9||6,4||9,9|
|Area with irrigation (ha)||1 086 830||1 481 219||1 959 824||3 121 642||4 535 768||6 694 245|
|Source: IBGE, Censos Agropecuários 1975/2017.|
Irrigated area in establishments increases 48%
In 2017, 502,379 agricultural establishments reported the use of some type of irrigation method, whereas the total irrigated area in the country was 6.69 million hectares. In relation to the 2006 Census of Agriculture, there was an increase of 52.6% in the number of establishments with irrigation in their land and of 48% in irrigated area.
Number of establishments using pesticides increases by 20.4%
Between 2006 and 2017, there was an increase of 20.46% in the total establishments that made use of pesticides in the period of reference of the Census. In the time series of censuses of agriculture, that figure varied significantly, and reached its peak (almost 2 million) in 1980, and to the lowest level (almost 1.4 million) in 2006.
In 2017, about 34% of the establishments that reported expenditure on pesticides had 5 ha or more of crop areas. Those establishments concentrated 94% of the expenditure on pesticides.
73% of the establishments that use pesticides have less than 20 ha of crops
Out of the 1,681,564 establishments that reported having used pesticides, 1,230,403 had crop areas smaller than 20 hectares, which is equivalent to 73% of the total. The expenditure of those establishments on pesticides was R$ 2.36 billion. The total expenditure on pesticides surveyed by the census was R$ 31.8 billion.
Internet access has increased 1,900% since 2006
In terms of Internet access, the increase is equally relevant. In the 2017 Census, 1,430,156 producers reported having internet access, being 659 thousand by means of broadband, and 909 thousand, of mobile internet. In 2006, the total agricultural establishments with access to the internet was only 75 thousand.
The number of establishments with access to a telephone increased from 1.2 million to 3.1 million, that is, by 158% between 2006 and 2017.
Illiteracy among rural producers records slight decrease: from 24.5% to 23.03%
About 15.5% of the producers reporte never having attended school; 73% attended only primary school, and 66.5% of them said they did not finish the course. Also, 23.03% of the producers (or 1,164,710) reported not knowing how to read or write. In 2006, the illiteracy rate was 24.5%.
Proportion of producers receiving technical guidance fell to 20.1%
There was a decrease from 22% to 20.1% in the proportion of producers receiving technicl guidance. In 2017, 1,025,443 agricultural producers reported receiving technical assistance, which corresponded to 20.1% of the total, a proportion below that of 2006, when there were 1,145,049 establishments receiving technical guidance.
Vegetable production accounts for 66.2% of the value or production of agriculture
The value of production of agricultural activities reached R$ 465 billion. Vegetable prodution contributed with 66.2% (R$ 308 billion), being 77% (R$ 237.3 billion) from Temporary Crops; 13% from Permanent Crops; 5.7% from Silviculture; 2.8% from Wild Crop Harvesting and Floriculture.
Animal production accounted for R$ 157.4 billion (33.8% of the total), with 70.5% from large-sized animals. The production of poultry wwas the second most significant (19%), followed by the production of medium and small-sized animals: 8% and 2.5%, respectively.
Northeast loses 131 thousand establishments, with a decrease by 5.1 million hectares
Only the Northeast Region recorded a decrease both in terms of number (131,341) and of area (5,180,546 ha) of the agricultural establishments. That decrease was mainly observed in municipalities of the semi-arid Northeast Region, 65,667 establishments or 50% of the decrease and 4,538,458 ha, representing 87.6% of the decrease.
In the South Region, despite the decrease in the number of estblishments (by 152,889), area recorded an increase (1,094,307 ha more).
In the other regions there was an increase in the number of establishments and in the area: in the North, 104 thousand establihsments more with an additional 9.67 million hectares; in the Southeast, 47,3 thousand establishments more with an increase by 5.36 million hectares and in the Central West an increase by 29.7 thousand establishments and 6.65 million hectares.
In spite of the reduction by 102,312 establishments between 2006 and 2017, there was an increase 4.9% (17,09,779 hectares) in the total area of establishments.
Besides, the number of producers with no area (beekeepers, extractivism agents, animal keepers working at roadsides, etc.) fell from 255,019, in 2006, to 77,037 in 2017.
Participation of establishments of 1,000 hectares or more records increase
Between 2006 and 2017, the participation in the total area of establishments of area equals to or bigger than 1,000 ha increased from 45% to 47.6%. With and increase by 3,625 establishments and 17.08 million hectares, the average area of the group rose from 3,155,7 to 3,265,9 ha.
The establishments with an area between 100 and less tha 1,000 ha had their participation in the overall area reduced, with a change from 33.8% to 31.9%. There was, among those establishments, a decrease by 3,569 units and 586,494 ha, with the average area chnging from 266 ha to 266.8 ha.
In the intermediate strata (less than 100 ha), the participation of area remained almost stable, with a change from 21.2% to 20.4%, with an increase of 75,614 establishments and the average area at 15.8 ha.
Proportion of the areas of leased land increases from 4.5% to 8.6% of the total area
Regarding the legal condition of land, between 2006 and 2017, the proportion of establishments that reported having their private land increased from 76% to 80.9%; nevertheless, the participation of those lands fell from 91% to 85%.
The proportion of leased areas fell from 6.4%, in 2006, to 6.3%, in 2017, but the participation of the area in this mode increased from 4% to 8%. The establishments with land classifed as "free-lease or occupied" changed from 9.7% to 9.6%, with a change from 2.2% to 2.8% in the area.
Areas of natural vegetation in agricultural establishments increase by 11.8%
Regarding land use in agricutural establishments, between 2006 and 2017, there was a decrease of 33.6% in the area used for permanent crops, such as fruit and coffee,for example. The area directed to temporary crops, such as grain and sugarcane, increased by 14%.
There was also decrease (18%) in natural pasture areas and increase (10%) in the areas directed to planted pastures. The Census also shows increase in the of hectares of natural vegetation (12%) in their domains, and of planted vegetation (83%), which are silviculture areas.
Participation of women and elderly among producers records increase
It was observed that 81.3% of the producers are men and 18.7%, women, representing an increase in the participation of women, since they amounted to 12.7% of the producers in the 2006 Census of Agriculture.
As for the age, there was decrease in the participation of groups under 25 years of age (from 3.3% to 2%), of those between 25 and less than 35 (13.6% to 9.3%) and between 35 to less than 45 (21.9% to 17.9%), whereas the participation of older groups recorded increase: from 45 to less than 55 (23.3% to 24.2%), from 55 to less than 65 (20.4% to 23.5%) and 65 and over (17.5% to 23.2%).
Color or race of the producer are surveyed for the first time in a Census of Agriculture
The color or race of the producer in charge of the establishment was surveyed in a Census of Agriculture for the first time. The distribution found was: white producers 45.4%; black producers 8.4%; yellow producers 0.6%; brown producers 44.5% and indigenous producers 1.1%.
These figures are similar to those in the population's distribution by color or race found in the IBGE's continuous PNAD.