IPCA-15 changes 0.09% in September and IPCA-E reaches 0.26%

September 24, 2019 09h00 AM | Last Updated: September 30, 2019 09h33 AM

The Extended National Consumer Price Index 15 (IPCA-15) changed 0.09% in September, close to the 0.08% rate registered in August. The IPCA-E, which is the quarterly cumulative IPCA-15, was 0.26%, below the 0.86% rate registered in the same period of 2018. In the year, the IPCA-15 accumulated a high of 2.60%, and, in 12 months, of 3.22%, the same result recorded in the previous 12 months. In September 2018, the rate was also 0.09%.

Period Rate
September 2019 0.09%
August 2019 0.08%
September 2018 0.09%
Cumulative in the year 2.60%
Cumulative in 12 months 3.22%

The group of Food and Beverage (-0.3%), which had already recorded decreases in August (-0.17%), contributed with biggest negative impact in this month’s index, -0.08 percentage points (pp). Among the rises, the highlight was Housing, which recorded the highest change (0.76%) and the biggest impact (0.12 pp) in the September IPCA- 15. The other groups ranged between the fall of 0.40% in Household Articles and the 0.58% rise in Wearing Apparel, whose impact in the monthly index was of 0.03 pp.

IPCA-15 e IPCA-E - Groups - Change and Impact

Group

Monthly Change (%) Impact Cumulative Change (%)
(pp)
July August September September Quarter 12 months
 
General Index 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.26 3.22
 
Food and Beverage 0.03 -0.17 -0.34 -0.08 -0.48 3.99
Housing 0.43 1.42 0.76 0.12 2.63 4.15
Household articles -0.06 0.82 -0.40 -0.02 0.36 2.80
Wearing Apparel -0.19 -0.07 0.58 0.03 0.32 0.93
Transportation -0.44 -0.78 0.09 0.02 -1.13 1.75
Health and Personal Care 0.34 -0.32 0.09 0.01 0.11 4.23
Personal Expenses 0.48 0.27 0.10 0.01 0.85 3.27
Education 0.12 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.23 4.82
Communication 0.14 0.44 -0.06 0.00 0.52 0.27
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços, Sistema Nacional de Índices de Preços ao Consumidor.

The result in the Housing groups (0.76%) was influenced, mainly, by the item electricity (2.31%). Although it was under the recorded rate in August (4.91%), the item represented the biggest individual impact in the September index (0.09 pp) and presented highs in its 8th consecutive month. It is worth highlighting that, in September, is the red tariff flag level 1 is in force, with an additional charge of R$4 per each 100kwh consumed. All surveyed regions presented positive changes in this item, from the 0.47% recorded in Salvador to the 3.82% recorded in Fortaleza. In Belém (3.45%), there were  adjustments in the tariffs, of 1.94%, in effect since 7th August.

Also regarding Housing, the result of the item piped gas (0.29%) was due to the adjustment of 0.99% in the Rio de Janeiro tariff (0.59%), from 1st August. The water and sewage fees (0.96%) resulted from the adjustment of 6.70%, as of 12 August, in Recife (6.25%) and the adjustment of 8.73%, in effect on 1st August, in Belo Horizonte (5.01%).

The Wearing Apparel group recorded positive changes of 0.58% in September, after the slight decrease of 0.07% in the previous month. In comparison to August, the price changes of jewelry and costumed jewelry (from 0.46% to 1.68%), footwear (from -0.15% to 0.70%), men’s wearing apparel (from 0.21% to 0.60%), and women’s wearing apparel (from -0.46% to 0.30%) speeded up.

In the Food and Beverage group (-0.34%), the deflation recorded in the second consecutive month is explained, mainly, by the decrease recorded in food at home (-0.81%). The biggest individual negative impact in the monthly index was tomatoes (-24.83%), with -0.07 pp. Moreover, carrots (-16.11%), green vegetables (-6.66%), fruits (-0.93%) and meat (-0.38%) also edged down in September.

Food away speeded up from August (0.33%) to September (0.50%), with a highlight for the highs in snacks and meals of 0.86% and 0.31%, respectively.

Household articles, after a high of 0.82% in August, recorded the biggest negative changes between the groups in September (-0.40%). In particular, the price decrease is highlighted in the item electronics (-1.22%), which had risen 2.21% in previous month.

After falls of 0.78% recorded in August, the Transportation group presented highs of 0.09% in the month index. This result was influenced, mainly, by the high in fuels (0.35%). The prices of ethanol (2.15%), natural gas (0.96%) and diesel (0.58%) rose in September, while gasoline (-0.06%) recorded less intense decreases in comparison to previous month (-1.88%).

Also regarding Transportation, the result of item intercity bus (0.37%) was influenced by the average adjustment of 4.48% in long-distance intercity fares in Porto Alegre (3.77%), in effect since 1st August. In turn, airfares, which had already recorded decreases in August (-5,57%), edged down 1.53% in September.

As for the indexes by area, five of the eleven surveyed regions recorded deflation from August to September. The lowest result was recorded in the Rio de Janeiro’s Metropolitan Area (-0.10%), due to the retreats observed in the prices of tomatoes (-37.80%). The highest index was in Goiania (0.54%), influenced by the increases in gasoline (3.50%) and electricity (3.02%).

IPCA-15 - Areas
Area Weigth by Area (%) Monthly Change (%) Cumulative Change (%)
July August September Quarter 12 months
Goiânia 4.44 -0.19 -0.29 0.54 0.06 2.75
Fortaleza 3.49 0.21 -0.19 0.24 0.26 4.37
Curitiba 7.79 0.18 0.01 0.21 0.40 2.73
São Paulo 31.68 -0.06 0.31 0.19 0.44 3.44
Recife 5.05 0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 3.24
Belém 4.65 0.25 -0.27 0.04 0.02 3.80
Porto Alegre 8.40 0.06 0.29 -0.02 0.33 3.66
Brasília 3.46 0.22 -0.17 -0.02 0.03 2.43
Belo Horizonte 11.23 0.20 0.14 -0.04 0.30 2.99
Salvador 7.35 0.13 -0.13 -0.04 -0.04 3.15
Rio de Janeiro 12.46 0.26 -0.13 -0.10 0.03 2.90
 
Brazil 100.00 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.26 3.22
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços, Sistema Nacional de Índices de Preços ao Consumidor.

For the calculation of IPCA-15, the prices were collected in the period from  August 14 to September 12, 2019 (reference) and compared with those in effect from  July 13 to  August 13, 2019 (basis). The indicator refers to the families with incomes of 1 to 40 minimum wages and covers the Metropolitan Areas of Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife, São Paulo, Belém, Fortaleza, Salvador e Curitiba, as well Brasília and Goiânia. The methodology in use is the same as that of the IPCA, the difference is in the price collection period and the geographic coverage.