CEMPRE 2017: Salaried persons with higher education in enterprises and other organizations grow 53.8% between 2009 and 2017

June 26, 2019 10h00 AM | Last Updated: June 28, 2019 12h32 PM

The number of enterprises and other organizations in Brazil fell 0.4% in 2017, which represented a reduction of 21.5 thousand in a universe of more than 5 million in operation. This was the smallest amount of enterprises since 2009, when they added up to nearly 4.8 million. On the other hand, the number of salaried employed persons increased 1.2%, which meant more 550.7 thousand persons, adding up to 51.9 million, highlighted by the increase of persons in Human health and social services (390.0 thousand persons) and Education (247.4 thousand persons). The biggest losses in the year took place in Construction (less 149.4 thousand persons) and Other activities of services (less 66.2 thousand persons). The number of partners and owners decreased by 0.3% (22.6 thousand persons).  Salaries and other compensation paid added up to R$1.7 trillion, being the monthly average wage of R$2,848.77, an increase of 4.9% in real terms. The highest average wages were paid by the sectors of Electricity and gas (R$7,643.38), whereas the lowest ones were paid by Housing and food (R$1,476.34).

In 2017, the salaried employed persons comprised 55.4% of men and 44.6% of women. The increase in the number of salaried employed persons was of 1.7% among women and of 0.9% among men. By schooling level, 77.4% of the employed persons had no higher education, while 22.6% had it. Compared with 2016, the number of salaried persons with higher education rose 5.6%, whereas the number of employed persons without higher education remained virtually stable. Between 2009 and 2017, the number of salaried employed persons without higher education increased 3.8%, whereas those with higher education rose 53.8%. The increases in the average wage between 2016 and 2017 were more significant among women (5.7%) than among men (4.4%); and among persons with higher education (3.7%) than without it (3.5%). As a result, the average wage of the persons with higher education (R$5,832.38) nearly tripled that of the persons without higher education (R$1,971.82). In terms of minimum wages, the average salary was 3.3 minimum wages among men and 2.7 among women, and 2.1 minimum wages among persons without higher education and 6.2 minimum wages among those with higher education.

In 2017, 5.0 million enterprises and other organizations in operation in Brazil had 5.5 million local units, which employed 51.9 million persons on December 31, 45.1 million of them salaried, who earned R$1.7 trillion in salaries and other compensation. São Paulo posted the highest relative participation in all variables: 30.4% in the number of local units, 28.6% in total employed persons, 28.4% in salaried employed persons and 32.3% in salaries and other compensation.

This information comprises the Central Register of Enterprises study - CEMPRE 2017. The complete analysis and support material are available on the right side of this page.

In the analysis by economic activity, the section of Trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles maintained the same number of enterprises and other organizations (37.5%), of total number of employed persons (21.9%) and of salaried employed persons (19.5%) in 2017.  Conversely, the biggest parcel of wages and other compensation was paid by Public administration, defense and social security (24.4%).

Table 15:  Number of enterprises and other organizations and salaried employed persons between 2007 and 2017 and balance in relation to the previous year - Brazil - 2007-2017
Year Number of enterprises and other organizations Salaried employed persons
Total Balance in relation to the previous year Total Balance in relation to the previous year
2007 4,420,345 - 36,658,326 -
2008 4,607,261 186,916 38,407,783 1,749,457
2009 4,846,639 239,378 40,212,057 1,804,274
2010 5,128,568 281,929 43,000,578 2,788,521
2011 5,129,205 637 45,184,019 2,183,441
2012 5,195,250 66,045 46,242,713 1,058,694
2013 5,392,234 196,984 47,890,419 1,647,706
2014 5,103,357 -288,877 48,271,711 381,292
2015 5,114,983 11,626 46,557,150 -1,714,561
2016 5,050,615 -64,368 44,519,619 -2,037,531
2017 5,029,109 -21,506 45,070,312 550,693
Source:  IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Cadastro e Classificações, Cadastro Central de Empresas 2007-2017

Human health and social services increase by 390 thousand employed persons, whereas Construction loses 149.4 thousand persons in 2017

Concerning the salaried employed persons, the sections of Human health and social services and Education stood out, with increases of 16.6% and 8.2% compared with 2016.  The biggest losses were in Construction (-7.5%), Other services activities (-7.1%) and Electricity and gas (-3.2%). Of the total 550.7 thousand salaried employed persons, which increased between 2016 and 2017, the section of Human health and social services accounted for 70.8% (390.0 thousand persons) of the increase in the number of salaried persons, whereas Education registered a share of 44.9% (247.4 thousand persons) and Public administration, defense and social security contributed with 32.2% to the increase in the balance of salaried employed persons. On the other hand, Construction was responsible for the decrease of 149.4 thousand persons, which represented -27.1%, while Other services activities dropped by 66.2 thousand persons (-12.0%).

The highest average monthly wages were paid by Electricity and gas (R$7,643.38), followed by Financial activities, insurance and related services (R$6,299.76) and International organizations and other extraterritorial institutions (R$5,276.61). In spite of paying higher average monthly wages, those activities, together, absorbed only 1.1 million persons, i.e., 2.4% of the salaried employed persons.

Conversely, the lowest average monthly wages were paid by Housing and food (R$1,476.34), Administrative activities and complementary services (R$1,769.79) and Trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (R$1,871.15), activities that, together, absorbed nearly 14.8 million persons, which represented 32.9% of the salaried employed persons.

Participation of women increases to 44.6% in 2017, highest value since 2009

In 2017, the salaried employed persons comprised 55.4% of men and 44.6% of women. The number of salaried employed persons rose 1.2% between 2016 and 2017, being 1.7% in the number of women and 0.9% in the number of men.

Table 21:  Percentage distribution of the salaried employed persons according to sex and schooling level - Brazil - 2009-2017
Year Total Sex Schooling level
Men Women Without higher education With higher education
2009 100.0 58.1 41.9 83.5 16.5
2010 100.0 57.9 42.1 83.4 16.6
2011 100.0 57.7 42.3 82.9 17.1
2012 100.0 57.3 42.7 82.3 17.7
2013 100.0 57.0 43.0 81.5 18.5
2014 100.0 56.5 43.5 80.4 19.6
2015 100.0 56.0 44.0 79.6 20.4
2016 100.0 55.6 44.4 78.3 21.7
2017 100.0 55.4 44.6 77.4 22.6
Source:  IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Cadastro e Classificações, Cadastro Central de Empresas 2009-2017

The increase in the number of salaried employed persons occurred in both sexes in six out of the 20 CNAE sections, highlighted by the section of Human health and social services (19.2% for men and 15.7% for women), Education (5.9% and 9.4%), Public administration, defense and social security (4.5% and 0.7%) and Professional, scientific and technical activities (3.6% and 2.8%, respectively). The biggest retreats of salaried personnel for both sexes were: Construction, with 7.5% for men and 7.6% for women, Other services activities, with 5.5% and 8,5%, Mining and quarrying industries, with 2.3% and 6.3% and Electricity and gas, with 3.1% and 3.5%, respectively.

By schooling level, 77.4% of the salaried employed persons had no higher education and 22.6% had higher education. Compared with the previous year, the number of salaried persons with higher education rose 5.6%, whereas the number of employed persons without higher education remained virtually stable.

The number of salaried employed persons with higher education increased in 16 out of the 20 CNAE 2.0 sections, highlighting the increases in Human health and social services (23.5%), Water, sewage, waste management activities and decontamination (11.2%), Real estate activities (9.0%) and Education (8.1%).

Women salaries increase 5.7% and men, 4.4%

The average monthly wage rose 4.9% in real terms between 2016 and 2017, changing from R$2,716.20 to R$2,848.77. The increases were more significant among women (5.7%) than among men (4.4%); and among persons with higher education (3.7%) than without higher education (3.5%).

The enterprise entities absorbed 77.7% of the male salaried employed persons and 62.2% of the female ones. They also absorbed 78.5% of the salaried employed persons without higher education and 44.3% of those with higher education.

The salaried employed persons without higher education earned, on average, R$1,971.82, which represented 33.8% of the average value earned by the salaried persons with higher education (R$5,832.38). By sex, the women wages increased from R$2,418.00 to R$2,555.84 and the men wages, from R$2,955.42 to R$3,086.00. By schooling level, the wage among the salaried employed persons without higher education changed from R$1,905.50 to R$1,971.82, whereas it changed from R$5,621.68 to R$5,832.38 among those with higher education.

In terms of minimum wages, the average monthly salary was about 3.0 minimum wages in 2017, being 3.3 minimum wages among men and 2.7 minimum wages among women. The salaried employed persons without higher education earned, on average, 2.1 minimum wages and those with higher education, 6.2 minimum wages.

Enterprises pay higher wages for persons with higher education

Concerning sex, it should be noticed that the highest average wage was paid by Public administration (R$4,778.32 and R$3,606.65) both men and women, respectively, whereas the enterprise entities paid the lowest values (R$2,735.86 and R$2,055.23, respectively). Concerning the schooling level, the highest average wage of the salaried personnel without higher education was paid by Public administration (R$2,557.82), while the lowest one was paid the non-profit entities (R$1,822.28). Considering the salaried personnel with higher education, the highest average wage was paid by the enterprise entities (R$6,132.56) and the lowest one (R$4,780.88), by the non-profit entities.

Table 8 - Average monthly wage, according to the legal nature, sex and schooling level - 2017
Legal nature Average monthly wage (R$)
Total Sex Schooling level
Men Women Without higher education With higher education
Total 2,848.77 3,086.00 2,555.84 1,971.82 5,832.38
Public administration 4,088.04 4,778.32 3,606.65 2,557.82 5,764.67
Corporate entities 2,469.54 2,735.86 2,055.23 1,871.12 6,132.56
Non-profit entities 2,716.54 2,925.61 2,552.24 1,822.28 4,780.88
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Cadastro e Classificações, Cadastro Central de Empresas 2017.

Salaried women almost triple men between 2009 and 2017

In 2009, men represented 58.1% of the salaried employed persons. Its share had been reducing year after year, hitting 55.4% in 2017, which meant a drop of 2.7 p.p. in that period. The reason why that happened was that salaried men rose 6.8% in relative terms, whereas salaried women increased 19.4%, i.e., almost the triple. It should be highlighted that, of the balance of 4.9 million new salaried job positions in the period between 2009 and 2017, 3.3 million (67.3%) were occupied by women and 1.6 million (32.7%), by men.

Salaried persons with higher education rises 53.8% between 2009 and 2017

Concerning schooling level, persons without higher education strongly prevailed in the salaried employed persons of the Brazilian organizations. However, its share had been continuously reducing, changing from 83.5% in 2009 to 77.4% in 2017, i.e., a decrease of 6.1 p.p. It was due to the different change rates of these groups: salaried employed personnel without higher education increased 3.8%, whereas those with higher education rose 53.8%. In addition, of the balance of 4.9 million new salaried job positions, 3.6 million (73.6%) were occupied by persons with higher education and 1.3 million (26.4%), by persons without higher education. As a result, the total number of employed persons with higher education in the Brazilian organizations changed from 6.6 million in 2009 to 10.2 million in 2017. With this increase, its share changed from 16.5% to 22.6%.

The changes in the rates of employed persons without higher education followed the economic upturn or downturn. In years in which the GDP strongly increased, like in 2010, the rate hit 6.8%. Nevertheless, this pace had been decreasing in the subsequent years, being negative in the period of economic downturn between 2014 and 2016. In turn, the growth of the salaried employed persons with higher education was positive in all the years under analysis, even in those with economic downturn and strong reduction of salaried persons. We can say that better educational background helps workers to stay in the labor market.

Table 20:  Salaried employed persons according to sex and schooling level - Brazil - 2009-2017
Year Total Sex Schooling level
Men Women Without higher education With higher education
2009 40,212,057 23,376,125 16,835,932 33,580,487 6,631,570
2010 43,000,578 24,904,592 18,095,986 35,865,158 7,135,420
2011 45,184,019 26,062,816 19,121,203 37,445,402 7,738,617
2012 46,242,713 26,501,756 19,740,957 38,037,534 8,205,179
2013 47,890,419 27,316,260 20,574,159 39,028,759 8,861,660
2014 48,271,711 27,281,087 20,990,624 38,799,274 9,472,437
2015 46,557,150 26,060,183 20,496,967 37,043,810 9,513,340
2016 44,519,619 24,751,530 19,768,089 34,855,015 9,664,604
2017 45,063,320 24,960,780 20,102,540 34,860,737 10,202,583
2009/2017 balance 4,851,263 1,584,655 3,266,608 1,280,250 3,571,013
2009/2017 relative change 12.1 6.8 19.4 3.8 53.8
Source:  IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Cadastro e Classificações,Cadastro Central de Empresas 2009-2017

Pay gap by sex and schooling level drops

Between 2009 and 2017, the monthly average salaries grew 13.8% in real terms, changing from R$2,508.18 to R$2,848.77. Women earned real increases above those of men in that period (16.6% and 12.7%, respectively), which allowed the reduction of the pay gap between men and women from 25.0% to 20.7%. In the analysis by schooling level, it should be noticed that the salary evolution of those without higher education was bigger than that among those with higher education (8.4% and -0.9%, respectively). Therefore, the pay gap between these two groups also decreased: from 223.5% to 195.8%. Even with this drop, the monthly average salaries paid to the salaried employed persons with higher education in 2017 nearly tripled the values paid to those without complete higher education.

Table 22: Real monthly average salaries, reference year of 2017, according to sex and schooling level - Brazil - 2009-2017
Reference year Monthly average salaries
Total Sex Schooling level
Woman Man Man/Woman pay gap (%) Without higher education With higher education Pay gap with and without higher education (%)
2009 2,508.18 2,191.63 2,738.51 25.0 1,819.86 5,887.04 223.5
2010 2,523.64 2,196.28 2,762.52 25.8 1,828.56 5,923.78 224.0
2011 2,584.14 2,250.43 2,829.71 25.7 1,866.37 5,960.88 219.4
2012 2,637.68 2,303.96 2,886.79 25.3 1,898.68 5,980.19 215.0
2013 2,736.03 2,385.80 3,001.86 25.8 1,961.45 6,077.39 209.8
2014 2,786.34 2,441.12 3,051.75 25.0 1,984.06 6,046.53 204.8
2015 2,698.22 2,384.08 2,946.09 23.6 1,898.94 5,819.79 206.5
2016 2,716.20 2,417.95 2,955.42 22.2 1,905.49 5,621.68 195.0
2017 2,848.77 2,555.84 3,086.00 20.7 1,971.82 5,832.38 195.8
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Cadastro e Classificações, Cadastro Central de Empresas 2009-2017

Five million organizations have 5.5 million local branches in 2017

In 2017, 5.0 million enterprises and other organizations in operation in Brazil had 5.5 million local branches, which employed 51.9 million persons on December 31, 45.1 million of them salaried, who earned R$1.7 trillion in salaries and other compensation.

By concentrating 2.8 million (50.5%) local branches in Brazil, 25.8 million employed persons (49.6%), 22.2 million salaried persons (49.3%) and R$888.6 billion (52.7%) in wages and other compensation, the Southeast Region stood out. The South ranked in the second position in participation in number of local branches (22.2%), in total employed personnel (18.2%) and in wages and other compensation (16.8%), whereas it ranked in the third position in relation to the salaried employed persons, with a share of 17.5%. In the second position in salaried employed persons came the Northeast (18.7%), which ranked in the third position in number of local branches (15.5%), in total employed persons (18.1%) and wages and other compensation (14.8%). The Central-West Region, in turn, ranked in the fourth position in all the variables surveyed, whereas the North Region ranked fifth, recording the lowest participation.

The reduction in the number of local branches was more significant in the Southeast Region (0.7%), followed by the South Region (0.2%). In terms of the salaried employed persons, the major gains were reported in the North Region (4.8%) and in the Central-West Region (2.4%).

In the analysis by Federation Unit, São Paulo posted the highest relative participation in all variables: 30.4% in the number of local branches, 28.6% in total employed persons, 28.4% in salaried employed persons and 32.3% in wages and other compensation. Minas Gerais ranked in the second position in number of local branches (10.7%), total number of employed persons (10.3%) and salaried employed persons (10.2%), though it ranked in the third position in wages and other compensation (8.7%).

Rio de Janeiro appeared in the third position in total employed persons and in salaried employed persons (8.8%), but ranked second in wages and other compensation (10.1%) and fifth in relation to the number of local branches (7.4%). Roraima, Acre and Amapá registered the lowest participation in these variables, ranging between 0.1% and 0.4%.