IPCA stays at 0.57% in April

May 10, 2019 09h00 AM | Last Updated: May 13, 2019 11h34 AM

The Extended National Consumer Price Index - IPCA was 0.57% in April, standing 0.18 percentage points (p.p.) below the March´s rate (0.75%). The cumulative change in the year was 2.09%. These were the two highest changes for April since 2016 (0.61% and 3.25%, respectively). The cumulative index over the last 12 months stayed at 4.94%, against the rate of 4.58% recorded in the immediately previous 12 months.  In April 2018, the rate was 0.22%. The support material of the IPCA is on the right side of this page.

Period Rate
April 2019 0.57%
March 2019 0.75%
April 2018 0.22%
Cumulative in the year 2.09%
Cumulative in 12 months 4.94%

The result of the IPCA in April was strongly influenced by the groups of Food and beverages (0.63%), Transportation (0.94%) and Health and personal care (1.51%). Together, these three groups accounted for 89.5% of the month´s index, having impacted 0.16 p.p., 0.17 p.p. and 0.18 p.p., respectively. The group of Household articles (-0.24%) was the only one to post a deflation in April. The results of the all groups of products and services surveyed are shown in the following table.

IPCA - Change and Impact by Group - monthly

Group Change (%) Impact (p.p.)
March April March Abril
 
Overall Index 0.75 0.57 0.75 0.57
 
Food and Beverages 1.37 0.63 0.34 0.16
Housing 0.25 0.24 0.04 0.04
Household Articles 0.27 -0.24 0.01 -0.01
Wearing Apparel 0.45 0.18 0.02 0.01
Transportation 1.44 0.94 0.26 0.17
Health and Personal Care 0.42 1.51 0.05 0.18
Personal Expenses 0.16 0.17 0.02 0.02
Education 0.32 0.09 0.02 0.00
Communication -0.22 0.03 -0.01 0.00
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços

The group of Health and personal care stood out with the highest change (1.51%) and the biggest impact (0.18 p.p.) among the groups of products and services surveyed. The major rises were registered in the groups of medicines (2.25%), reflecting the annual adjustment, in force since March 31, with a maximum of 4.33%; personal hygiene (2.76%), highlighted by perfumes (from 1.45% in March to 6.56% in April) and health insurance (0.80%).

Even with the deceleration in the level of prices between March (1.44%) and April (0.94%), the group of Transportation was the second one with the highest change and impact (0.17 p.p.) on the April´s IPCA. Gasoline was the major individual impact this month (2.66% more expensive, on average). The variations were between -0.58% in the metropolitan area of Salvador and the rise of 5.98% in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre.

Other positive contributions in the group of Transportation came from airfare (5.32%) and urban bus (0.74%), both of them impacting 0.02 p.p. on the index. The latter included the adjustments of 9.30% in the fare in Porto Alegre (3.98%), in force since March 13, of 7.81% in Recife (0.58%) and of 5.88% in Curitiba (0.45%), both from March 2 onward. The indexes in Salvador (7.30%) and Goiânia (2.75%) reflected the adjustments of 8.11%, since April 2, and of 7.50%, since April 19, respectively.

Still in Transportation, intercity bus (0.18%) took into account the adjustments of 3.78% in Campo Grande (3.07%), since April 1st, and of 19.57% in São Luís (15.91%), since March 23. Train (1.56%) took into account the adjustment of 27.30% in Porto Alegre (10.82%), in force since March 13, and subway (1.52%) reflected the adjustment of 6.98% in Rio de Janeiro (6.28%) since April 2.

The group of Food and beverages decelerated between March (1.37%) and April (0.63%). Food for consumption at home changed from 2.07% last month to 0.62% in the current month, influenced by the drops in carioca beans (-9.09%) and fruits (-0.71%), even with the pressure exerted by tomatoes (28.64%), whole chicken (3.32%), onion (8.62%) and meat (0.46%). On the other hand, food away from home changed from 0.10% to 0.64%.

In the group of Housing (0.24% and impact of 0.04 p.p.), electricity (0.10%), water and sewage fees (0.49%) and piped gas (1.38%) stood out. The last item reflected the adjustments in the metropolitan area of Curitiba (16.48%), in which the adjustment of 16.48%, in force since February 28, was fully implemented in the fare, though not yet in the indexes. In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, the drop of 0.20% reflected the reduction from 11.00% to 9.00% in the adjustment, being the first percentage in force since February 1st and, the second, since March 1st.

Still in the group of Housing, water and sewage fees (0.49%) took into account the adjustments of 2.99% since April 1st in Brasília (2.81%); 15.86%, since March 24, in Fortaleza (12.39%) and 5.89% since March 1st in Aracaju (0.36%).

The result of electricity (0.10%) reflected the average change registered in the areas surveyed, which swung between -5.40% in the metropolitan area of Vitória and 6.65%, of Campo Grande. The major adjustments incorporated into the index occurred in: Campo Grande (6.65%), of 12.39% since April 8; Rio de Janeiro (4.20%): 11.53% and 9.72% in the concessionaires, since March 15, being reduced to 8.80% and 7.30%, respectively, since April 1st; Fortaleza (2.91%): 7.39%since April 22; Recife (2.64%): 5.56% since April 29; Salvador (1.70%): 6.21% since April 22; and Aracaju (1.50%): 3.04% since April 22. The highlights in the drops were in Rio Branco (-2.60%), with a reduction of 3.16% in the fare since April 1st, and in the metropolitan area of Vitória (-5.40%), caused by the reduction in PIS/COFINS.

Concerning the regional indexes, as shown in the following table, Rio Branco (0.05%) recorded the lowest change in the IPCA of April, due to the drop in electricity (-2.60%), as a result of the reduction of 3.16% in the fare since April 1st. The highest index was reported in the metropolitan area of Fortaleza (0.91%), whose result was mainly influenced by the item water and sewage fees (12.39%), concerning the adjustment of 15.86%, in force since March 24.

IPCA - Change by area - monthly and cumulative in 12 months

Area Regional Weight (%) Change (%) Cumulative Change (%)
March April Year 12 months
Fortaleza 2.91 1.04 0.91 2.82 4.91
São Luís 1.87 1.36 0.87 2.77 5.49
Porto Alegre 8.40 1.18 0.83 2.26 5.63
Salvador 6.12 0.76 0.83 2.16 5.26
Aracaju 0.79 1.21 0.80 2.87 5.59
Brasília 2.80 0.93 0.77 1.58 4.21
Belém 4.23 0.49 0.62 2.35 4.35
Goiânia 3.59 0.12 0.62 1.44 4.67
Recife 4.20 0.82 0.59 2.28 4.86
Curitiba 7.79 0.83 0.57 1.63 4.50
Campo Grande 1.51 0.70 0.52 1.95 4.27
São Paulo 30.67 0.78 0.49 2.10 4.99
Rio de Janeiro 12.06 0.83 0.46 2.27 5.02
Belo Horizonte 10.86 0.29 0.42 1.94 4.82
Vitória 1.78 0.39 0.32 1.57 5.02
Rio Branco 0.42 0.78 0.05 1.88 5.38
 
Brazil 100.00 0.75 0.57 2.09 4.94
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços

The IPCA has been calculated by the IBGE since 1980. It refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 40 minimum wages, whatever the source. It encompasses ten metropolitan areas in Brazil, besides the municipalities of Goiânia, Campo Grande, Rio Branco, São Luís, Aracaju and Brasília. In order to estimate the index of the month, the prices collected from March 30 to April 30, 2019 (reference) were compared with the prices in force from February 27 to March 29, 2019 (base).

INPC was 0.60% in April

The National Consumer Price Index - INPC changed 0.60% in April, 0.17 percentage points (p.p.) below the rate of March (0.77%). The cumulative change in the year stayed at 2.29%. Both the monthly and annual changes were the highest ones for April since 2016 (0.64% and 3.58%, respectively). The cumulative index over the last 12 months stayed at 5.07%, against the rate of 4.67% recorded in the immediately previous 12 months.  In April 2018, the rate was 0.21%.

Food products rose 0.64% in April, against 1.50% in March. The group of non-food products went to 0.58%, against 0.45% in March.

In regional terms, as shown below, Rio Branco (0.00%) posted, on average, a stable price level. The highest index was registered in the metropolitan area of Salvador (1.08%), mainly influenced by urban bus (7.30%), reflecting the adjustment of 8.11% in the fare, in force since April 2.

INPC - Change by area - monthly and cumulative in 12 months

Area Regionla Weight (%) Change (%) Cumulative Change (%)
March April Year 12 months
Salvador 8.75 0.75 1.08 2.30 5.45
Fortaleza 5.42 1.02 0.89 2.95 4.93
São Luís 3.11 1.39 0.85 2.96 5.39
Aracaju 1.29 1.08 0.84 3.04 5.43
Porto Alegre 7.38 1.27 0.81 2.22 5.65
Brasília 1.88 0.72 0.67 1.58 3.40
Belém 6.44 0.45 0.64 2.43 3.97
Curitiba 7.29 0.92 0.63 1.82 4.93
Rio de Janeiro 9.51 0.91 0.61 2.58 5.28
Goiânia 4.15 0.32 0.58 1.70 5.07
Recife 5.88 0.99 0.45 2.46 4.78
São Paulo 24.24 0.70 0.42 2.22 5.19
Belo Horizonte 10.60 0.35 0.41 2.19 5.06
Campo Grande 1.64 0.67 0.40 2.02 4.52
Vitória 1.83 0.53 0.29 2.19 5.50
Rio Branco 0.59 0.66 0.00 1.71 5.50
 
Brazil 100.00 0.77 0.60 2.29 5.07
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços

In order to estimate the index of the month, the prices collected from March 30 to April 30, 2019 (reference) were compared with the prices in force from February 27 to March 29, 2019 (base).

The INPC has been calculated by the IBGE since 1979. It refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 5 minimum wages, with a salaried head of the household. It encompasses ten metropolitan areas in Brazil, besides the municipalities of Goiânia, Campo Grande, Rio Branco, São Luís, Aracaju and Brasília.