IPCA was 0.75% in March 2019

April 10, 2019 09h00 AM | Last Updated: April 15, 2019 03h50 PM

The Extended National Consumer Price Index - IPCA of March was 0.75% and stood 0.32 percentage points (pp) above February's rate (0.43%). It was the highest rate for March since March 2015 (1.32%). The cumulative change in the year was 1.51%, the biggest for the period since 2016 (2.62%). The cumulative rate for the last 12 months went to 4.58%, against 3.89% in the 12 previous months. In March 2018, the rate was 0.09%. The support material of the IPCA is on the right of this page.

Period Rate
March 2019 0.75%
February 2019 0.43%
March 2018 0.09%
Cumulative in the year 1.51%
Cumulative in 12 months 4.58%

March IPCA was deeply affected by the groups Food and Beverage (1.37%) and Transportation (1.44%). Together, these two groups accounted fro 43% of household expenditures and contributed with nearly 80% to the monthly index, with impacts of 0.34 pp and 0.26 pp, respectively. Communication, with -0.22%, was the only group with deflation in March. The results of the all groups of products and services surveyed are shown in the following table.

IPCA - Change and impact by groups - monthly
Group Change (%) Impact (pp)
February March February March
General Index 0.43 0.75 0.43 0.75
Food and beverage 0.78 1.37 0.19 0.34
Housing 0.38 0.25 0.06 0.04
Household articles 0.20 0.27 0.01 0.01
Wearing apparel -0.33 0.45 -0.02 0.02
Transportation -0.34 1.44 -0.06 0.26
Health and personal care 0.49 0.42 0.06 0.05
Personal expenses 0.18 0.16 0.02 0.02
Education 3.53 0.32 0.17 0.02
Communication 0.00 -0.22 0.00 -0.01
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de Índices de Preços

The group Food and beverages stood out with the biggest impact (0.34 pp) and the second biggest change (1.37%) among the groups of products and services surveyed. The group Food at home registered a high of 2.07%, with places changing from 0.80% in Rio Branco to 3.38% in São Luís. The highlights were: tomatoes (31.84%), potatoes (21.11%), carioca beans (12.93%) and fruit (4.26%).

In Transportation, after deflation (-0.34%) in February, the index presented a strong acceleration (1.44%), the biggest change among the groups of products and services surveyed. Fuels (3.49%) were the main responsible for the high, with gasoline costing, on average, 2.88% more. The changes were between the -2.47% of Goiânia and the 8.54% of the Metropolitan Area of Fortaleza. As to ethanol, whose high was of 7.02%, again Goiânia was the only area to record a price drop (-4.37%). The greatest change was of 8.57% in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo.

Other positive contribution in the group of Transportation came from the items airfare (7.29%) and urban bus (0.90%), both with 0.03 pp. The latter accounts for the increases of 9.30% in the fares in Porto Alegre (5.12%), in effect since March 13, of 7.81% in Recife (7.19%) and of 5.88% in Curitiba (5.41%), both in force on March 02. Another highlight is train (2.07%), due to the increase of 27.30% in the fares in Porto Alegre (14.85%), in effect since March 13.

In the item electricity (0.04%) of the group Housing (0.25%), the areas surveyed presented changes between the decrease (-5.89%) in the Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte, majorly pressed by the reduction in the share of PIS/COFINS, and the high of 4.72% of the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, because of the average increases of 11,53% and of 9,72% in the concessionaires, started on March 15.  It should be highlighted that the green tariff flag remained in force, preventing the additional charge per kilowatt-hour consumed.

Also in Housing, the change of -0.79% in item piped gas was due to the adjustment in the fare in São Paulo (-2.10%). The initial average increase was of 11.00% starting on February 1st and became 9.00% on March 1st.

In the item water and sewer (0.46%), also in the group housing, there was the inclusion of the 22.29% change, in São Luís which reproduces the average increase of 22.29%in force since February 09, still not proper in the indices. Also to be considered are the increases of 15.86%, in Fortaleza (3.07%), in force since March 24, and of 5.89% in Aracaju (5,51%), starting on March 1st.

The group Wearing apparel also left behind February's drop (-0.33%), recording, in March, a high of 0.45%. The highlights are men's apparel (from -0.01% in February to 0.68% in March), women's apparel (-0.56% in February to 0.34% in March), kids' apparel (-0.16% in February to 0.41% in March) and footwear (-0.54% in February to 0.38% in March).

In health and personal care (-0.42%), the highlight is to the item health plan (0.80%).

In  Communication  (-0.22%), the negative change in the month was due to the fall in the price of  telephones  (-1.44%) and  landline telephones  (-0.75%), due to the average reduction of 7.50% in the tariffs for calls from landline to mobile phones, as of February 25. Conversely, the result of mailing (2.23%) reflects the increases of 13.90% and 5.47%, in force since March 06, in one of the services in Rio de Janeiro (2.60%) and in Vitória (0.43%), respectively.

As to the indices by area, as shown in the following table, Goiânia (0.12%) had the lowest change in the IPCA of March due to the decreases observed in the prices of ethanol (-4.37%) and of gasoline (-2.47%). The biggest index stood with the municipality of São Luís (1.36%), whose result was influenced mainly by the item water and sewer (22.29%), which reproduces the average increase of 22.29%, in force since February 09, still not accounted for in the indices, and by gasoline (4.11%).

IPCA - Change by areas - monthly and cumulative in 12 months
Area Weight by area (%) Change (%) Cumulative change (%)
February March Year 12 months
São Luís 1.87 0.43 1.36 1.88 4.58
Aracaju 0.79 0.54 1.21 2.05 4.75
Porto Alegre 8.40 0.15 1.18 1.41 5.18
Fortaleza 2.91 0.69 1.04 1.89 4.26
Brasília 2.80 -0.18 0.93 0.80 3.83
Rio de Janeiro 12.06 0.48 0.83 1.80 4.85
Curitiba 7.79 0.18 0.83 1.05 3.99
Recife 4.20 0.59 0.82 1.69 4.59
Rio Branco 0.42 1.12 0.78 1.82 5.32
São Paulo 30.67 0.44 0.78 1.61 4.59
Salvador 6.12 0.18 0.76 1.32 4.75
Campo Grande 1.51 0.52 0.70 1.42 4.49
Belém 4.23 0.93 0.49 1.72 4.07
Vitória 1.78 0.58 0.39 1.25 4.89
Belo Horizonte 10.86 0.51 0.29 1.52 4.61
Goiânia 3.59 0.87 0.12 0.82 3.84
Brazil 100.00 0.43 0.75 1.51 4.58

The IPCA has been calculated by the IBGE since 1980. It refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 40 minimum wages, whatever the source. It encompasses ten metropolitan areas in Brazil, besides the municipalities of Goiânia, Campo Grande, Rio Branco, São Luís, Aracaju and Brasília. In order to measure the index of the month the prices collected from February 27 to March 29 of 2019 (reference) were compared with the ones in force from January 30 to February 26 of 2019 (base).

INPC in March reached 0.77%

The National Consumer Price Index (INPC) of March posted a change of 0.77%, 0.23 pp above February's rate (0.54%).  It was the highest rate for March since 2015 (1.51%). The cumulative index of the year was 1.68%, the highest for the period since 2016 (2.93%). The cumulative index over the last 12 months stayed at 4.67%, against the 3.94% recorded in the previous 12 months.  In March of 2018, the rate was at 0.07%.

Food products had a high of 1.50% in March against 0.94% in February. The group of non-food products was at 0.45%, against 0.37% in February.

By areas, as shown in the following table. The lowest index was in Goiânia (0.32%), due to the price drops in ethanol (-4.37%) and of gasoline (-2.47%). The highest index stood with the municipality of São Luís (1.39%) influenced, mainly by water and sewer (22.29%), which reproduces the average increase of 22.29%, in force since February 09, still not accounted for in the indices, and by tomatoes (27.20%).

INPC - Change by areas - monthly and cumulative in 12 months
Area Weight by area (%) Change (%) Cumulative change (%)
February March Year 12 months
São Luís 3.11 0.52 1.39 2.09 4.50
Porto Alegre 7.38 0.05 1.27 1.40 5.29
Aracaju 1.29 0.63 1.08 2.18 4.55
Fortaleza 5.42 0.75 1.02 2.04 4.23
Recife 5.88 0.60 0.99 1.99 4.60
Curitiba 7.29 0.29 0.92 1.19 4.32
Rio de Janeiro 9.51 0.72 0.91 1.96 4.93
Salvador 8.75 0.22 0.75 1.21 4.68
Brasília 1.88 0.07 0.72 0.90 3.10
São Paulo 24.24 0.53 0.70 1.79 4.79
Campo Grande 1.64 0.65 0.67 1.62 4.85
Rio Branco 0.59 1.17 0.66 1.71 5.50
Vitória 1.83 1.04 0.53 1.89 5.46
Belém 6.44 0.97 0.45 1.78 3.63
Belo Horizonte 10.60 0.58 0.35 1.78 4.90
Goiânia 4.15 0.88 0.32 1.11 4.19
Brazil 100.00 0.54 0.77 1.68 4.67

In order to measure the index of the month the prices collected from February 27 to March 29 of 2019 (reference) were compared with the ones in force from January 30 to February 26 of 2019 (base).

The INPC has been calculated by the IBGE since 1979. It refers to households with monthly income of 1 to 5 minimum wages, with a salaried head of the household. It encompasses ten metropolitan areas in Brazil, besides the municipalities of Goiânia, Campo Grande, Rio Branco, São Luís, Aracaju and Brasília.