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ESTADIC 2017: All state administrations stimulate family farming and agro-industry

July 05, 2018 10h00 AM | Last Updated: July 09, 2018 04h33 PM

In 2017, the 27 Federation Units reported to have development programs both dedicated to family farming and to agro-industry. There were also incentive programs to organic farming in 26 Federation Units (FUs) and, in 19, there were either programs or actions to stimulate the planting of community gardens. The easy access to seeds was recorded in 24 FUs, being offered for free in 16 of them. Fishing received incentive in 23 states and aquaculture in 24. All state governments either promoted or gave support to seasonal festivals of the agricultural sector.

This information is found in the 2017 Profile of Brazilian States (ESTADIC) which, for the first time, investigated the political management of agriculture in the Federation Units besides topics like human resources, housing, transportation and environment.

Just five FUs reported that the total number of their intercity bus fleet was adapted to persons with disabilities.

In 2017, just Rio Grande do Norte and Mato Grosso did not allocate financial resources specifically to state environmental bodies. On average, the states allocated 2.0% of their budget to this end, with Acre registering the biggest percentage, 11.0%.

The State Housing Plans were present at 25 FUs and, in 22 of them, there were housing services for families to be taken out of risk areas or because of urbanization construction works. The complete publication and the support material are on the right of this page.

Number of employed persons in district and state administrations falls

The number of people employed in the direct and indirect state and district administrations decreased by 5.0% between 2014 and 2017, from 3.2 million to 3.0 million. The number of persons employed in direct and indirect administrations in the states and in the Federal District corresponded to 2.0% of the population aged 18 years or over. The percentages per Federation Units ranged from 6.8% in Acre to 1.2% in Maranhão and Ceará.

Table 1 - Employed personnel in direct and inderect administrations, by Major Regions and Federation Units - 2017
Major Regions and Federation Units Employed personnel in direct and indirect administration 2014 (1) (2) Employed personnel in direct and indirect administration  2017 (1) (3) Change % 2014 - 2017
          Brazil  3 173 145 3 016 028 -5.0
      North  366 498  373 227 1.8
Rondônia (1)  50 820  48 882 -3.8
Acre  39 082  35 229 -9.9
Amazonas  87 375  80 174 -8.2
Roraima¹  24 108  20 444 -15.2
Pará  81 846  104 711 27.9
Amapá  29 022  30 147 3.9
Tocantins  54 245  53 640 -1.1
     Northeast  756 909  653 381 -13.7
Maranhão  72 176  54 330 -24.7
Piauí  57 622  56 411 -2.1
Ceará  107 869  78 519 -27.2
Rio Grande do Norte  64 214  57 063 -11.1
Paraíba  84 304  58 332 -30.8
Pernambuco  133 050  118 332 -11.1
Alagoas (2)  41 253  38 807 -5.9
Sergipe  37 576  40 513 7.8
Bahia  158 845  151 074 -4.9
     Southeast 1 220 202 1 216 758 -0.3
Minas Gerais (2)  344 107  379 161 10.2
Espírito Santo  67 636  55 770 -17.5
Rio de Janeiro  207 030  213 025 2.9
São Paulo (2)  601 429  568 802 -5.4
     South  441 727  408 749 -7.5
Paraná  199 022  188 174 -5.5
Santa Catarina  77 810  89 533 15.1
Rio Grande do Sul  164 895  131 042 -20.5
     Central-West  387 809  363 913 -6.2
Mato Grosso do Sul  49 708  50 347 1.3
Mato Grosso  76 824  73 507 -4.3
Goiás  114 492  101 146 -11.7
Federal District  146 785  138 913 -5.4
Source: IBGE, Diretoria de Pesquisas, Coordenação de  População e Indicadores  Sociais, Pesquisa de Informações Básicas Estaduais 2014/2017. (1) This table was elaborated considering as total the sum of the amount of the employment contracts informed. (2) In 2014: Alagoas did not report the amount of only direct commissioners; Minas Gerais and São Paulo did not report the number of trainees from the direct and indirect administration; and Rondônia did not inform the employed personnel by labor contract of the indirect administration. (3) In 2017, Tocantins, Sergipe and Minas Gerais did not report the total number of trainees in the direct and indirect administration; and Roraima did not inform the employed personnel by labor contract of the indirect administration.

Most States manages agriculture via direct administration

For the first time, the Survey of State Basic Information (ESTADIC) investigated the management of agricultural policies in the Federation Units. The sector was managed, mostly, through state secretariats together with other sectoral policies (16 UFs), followed by exclusive secretariats (10). Only Mato Grosso do Sul had an indirect administration body. In all the Federation Units, the agricultural policy manager was male, with an average age of 53.4. The Southeast Region presented the lowest average age (47.5), while the South, the highest (62.7). In terms of schooling, two managers had a PhD level, three, a master's degree, eight had a specialization, eleven, complete higher education, two had complete secondary education and one,complete primary education.

All the 27 FUs reported having a State Council for Rural Development. In 20 the councils were balanced, in four there was greater governmental representation and, in three, greater participation of the civil society.

Family farming and agro-industry receive support in all UFs

All the governments declared to have programs of foster family farming as well asagribusiness. There were also incentive programs for organic agriculture in 26 UF. In 19, there was a program or action to stimulate the cultivation of community gardens. All the state managements either promoted or gave support to periodic festivitals related to the agricultural sector. Awards to the best producers were sudsidized in 19 UFs. Fishing got support in 23 states and aquaculture, in 24. Animal vaccination programs were present in 22 states. Among the Major Regions, the South was the only one in which all states presented some modality of the program. The facilitated access to seeds was registered in 24 FUs, being offered free of charge in 16 of them. 

The existence of institutions that technically support agricultural activities, through an agreement, whether public, private or both, was also investifates. In 14 Federation Units, the agreements were with public and private institutions; in eight, only with public institutions; and in two, only with private institutions.

The existence of governments' infrastructure for the exclusive use of rural porducers to stimulate the direct sale of their products to the population was also surveyed. In 24 states, there was some structure: trade centers, fairs or others.

In 24 of the 27 Federation Units, there were official records of organizations of associativism or representation of agricultural producers. Of these, 16 had records of rural unions; 21, of associations of producers and, in 22 states, register of cooperatives.

In 22 UFs, there were programs or actions against climatic problems for the agricultural sector. The adequate prevention against climatic adversities allows to mitigate their effects and damages.

Most Federation Units have an exclusive environment secretariat

In 2017, all Federation Units reported having some environment division. Management through an exclusive state secretariat was present in 17 states. In seven others, the environment was dealt with by a state secretariat in partnership with other sectoral policies and in one FU, by a subordinate sector to another secretariat. Roraima and Mato Grosso do Sul performed environmental management by an indirect public administration body. In 21 Federation Units, the presence of another state body in addition to the managing one was registered.

Regarding the existence of a state agency that produces environmental statistics, the number increased from 14 in 2013 to 16 in 2017. The North Region was the only one in which all states had this body. In the Northeast, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, Alagoas and Bahia had this division, which was not present in the South Region.

The female participation in environmental management decreased from five managers in 2013 to only two, in Tocantins and Rio Grande do Sul, in 2017. The average age of managers was 52.6 years old. Of the 24 managers with complete higher education, 13 had postgraduate degrees.

The State Environmental Councils (CEMA) are present in all Federation Units. In 2013, the composition of the Councils was the same in 20 UFs, going to 16 in 2017. In relation to their duties, in 2017 25 had a primarily deliberative character, followed by 17 of a normative nature and 14 consultative ones. This indicates a change in the CEMA profile; in 2013, there were 26 deliberative and 18 consultative councils. In Maranhão, the CEMA was only an advisory instance and, in Sergipe, only normative. In Bahia, Goiás, and the Federal District, the CEMA was simultaneously consultative, deliberative and normative, being the only ones with supervision duties.

Green GST was present in 16 Federation Unit 

The legislation on Ecological GST, or Green taxation, was present in 16 Federation Units, three more ones than in 2013. Among the states that had legislation on the tax, 14 reported having passed on financial resources considering this criterion. Among the distribution criteria, Presence of Conservation Units was the most reported one, present in 13 Federation Units. This is not a new tax, but new criteria for the redistribution of GST resources.

In 22 FUs, housing plans include protection for removed families  

Estadic 2017 investigated the presence of three housing policy management tools in each FU: State Housing Plans, their respective councils and funds. The existence of these instruments is essential so that the state administration has access to the funds of the National Housing System of Social Interest - SNHIS.

The State Housing Plans are documents with diagnoses of the housing conditions in the state, housing policy objectives and lines of action to achieve them. They were present in 25 FUs and in 22 included the guarantee of housing assistance to families to be removed from risk areas or because of the need for urbanization works. The State Housing Councils bring together governments and civil society representatives to formulate and monitor public sector policies. Of the 25 FUs that had a Council, 12 had a half-to-half composition, eight had a majority of civil society representatives and five had a majority of government members. Just in São Paulo, did the Council have an exclusively consultative duty.

The State Housing Funds bring together funds of sources specified by law, linking them to expenses in the area of ​​housing. Of the 23 FUs that reported having both a Council and a State Housing Fund, Council acted as a manager in 12 of them.

Only five states claim to have fleet of intercity buses fully adapted for people with disabilities

Five Federation Units reported that their intercity bus services operated with fleets fully adapted for persons with disabilities or reduced mobility. Another 16 reported having partially adapted fleets and six had no type of adaptation.