2016 Continuous PNAD: Brazil has at least 998 thousand children in irregular working conditions
November 29, 2017 10h00 AM | Last Updated: December 05, 2017 06h11 PM
In 2016, 1.8 million children aged 5 to 17 were working in Brazil. More than half of them (54.4% or 998 thousand), at least, worked in conditions in the same conditions as those of child labor, either because of their age, 5 to 13 (190 thousand persons), or because although they were aged 14 to 17, they did not have an employment record card (808 thousand) as required by the Brazilian law. Information on child labor is presented on the thematic module of the 2016 PNAD, released today by the IBGE.
Child labor imeans the employment of children under the youngest age allowed by law. In Brazil, the Federal Constitution of 1998 allows children to work from age 16 on, except in cases of night shifts, or of dangerous or unhealthy working conditions, for which the minimum age is 18. The Constitution allows children to work from age 14 on, but only as an apprentice.
On the average, 81.4% of the employed children aged 5 to 17 were also studying. Employment status used to interfere with the level of schooling of older children: 98.4% of the employed children aged 5 to 13 were in school, versus 98.6% of the unemployed ones, whereas among those aged 14 to 17 anos, 79.5% were studying, versus 86.1% of the non-employed ones.
Agriculture was the main group of activity of employed children aged 5 to 13, with 47.6% of them. For those aged 14 to 17, the main activity was trade, with 27.2%. Whereas 66.0% of those aged 14 to 17 were employees, 73.0% of the children aged 50 to 13 were contributing family workers.
It was also observed that, among employed persons aged 5 to 13, only 26.0% earned compensation, whereas among those aged 14 to 17, 78.2% earned compensation. The average income from all tnhe activities of persons aged 5 to 17 was estimated at R$ 514.00.
Besides employment in economic activities, PNAD also investigated the particpation of children in other forms of work: in 2016, approximately 716 thousand children aged 5 to 17 were working for their own consumption, which is equivalent to 1.8% of the total, and 20.1 million performed activities related to the care of persons and household chores (50.2%). About 72.3% of the children employed in economic activities also had other types of occupation.
Click here to see the Continuous PNAD module on Child Labor.
71.8% of the employed children aged 5 to 13 are black or brown
In 2016, 1.8 million children aged 5 to 17 were working in Brazil, which means 4.6% of the total in this age group. By age, the highest proportion (employment population ratio) was that of persons aged 16 or 17 years, with 17% of employed persons (about 1.2 million). For those aged 14 or 15, the employment population ration was 6.4% (430 thousand); for ages 10 to 13, 1.3% (160 thousand) and for persons 5 to 9, 0.2% (30 thousand).
Black or brown children were the majority among the employed ones, 64.1%. Among the employed children aged 5 to 13 years of age, 71.8% were black or brown, and, among those 14 to 17 years of age, they made up 63.2%. The overall population aged 5 to 17, regardless of their employment status, had 60.5% of black or brown children; of those aged 5 to 13 and 14 to 17, figures amounted to 60.0% an 61.4%, respectively.
Work shifts increases with the population's age, ranging from 8 hours, on the average, in the case of young children (from 5 to 9) to 28.4 hours, in the case of older ones (16 or 17).
The North and Northeast had the biggest proportion of employed children aged 5 to 13, employed: 1.5% (47 thousand children) and 1.0% (79 thousand children). Work among those aged 14 to 17 was proportionally more present in the South Region, with 16.6% of the population that age.
On the average, 81.4% of the children employed in Brazil were attending school in 2016. Among those aged 5 to 13, 98.4% of the employed persons were in school; in the group aged 14 to 17, the proportion was 79.5%.
The older age groups had lower schooling rates for both types of employment status, although the unemployed had higher rates than the employed ones.
Three out of every four employed children aged 5 to 13 worked for their families
Agriculture concentrated the highest proportion of the youngest age group, age 5 to 13 (47.6%). Trade was the main activity performed by children aged 14 to 17 (27.2%). In addition to that, 66.0% of the persons aged 14 to 17 were employed as contributing family workers. It was also observed that, in the employed population aged 5 to 13, only 26.0% had compensation, whereas among children aged 14 and 17, 78.2% did.
Working conditions of at least 54.4% working children can be considerd child labor, not in accordance with Brazilian law
Among working children aged 14 or 15, considered employees, 89.5% did not have a formal employment contract. Among employees aged 16 or 17, the percentage of persons without an employment contract was 70.8%.
That way, the child population in non-allowed types of occupation is represented by the employed children aged 5 to 13 (190 thousand persons), the ones aged 14 or 15 years who were below the young apprentice standards (196 thousand persons), and those aged 16 or 17 without a formal employment contract (612 thousand persons). That figure reached 998 persons in 2006, or 54.4% of those employed in the group aged 5 to 17.
Other conditions that characterize child labor, such as dangerous or even dangerous activities (even for registered workers) and training for young apprentice programs, are not encompassed by the survey), and, therefore, have not been counted in the percentage relative to child employed in non-allowed activities.
Children who work but do not study have higher incomes
The average income from all the activities of persons aged 5 to 17 was estimated at R$ 514.00, and the average income of the youngest children (age 5 to 13) was R$ 132.00 and of the oldest ones (14 to 17), R$ 528.00.
There were also differences in relation to the student status: employed children who earned income, and studie, earned less than those who did not study. That may have happened because children who did not study had more time to work (34.6 hours, on the average) than those who did (23.2 hours), and, for this reason, had higher income.
Half (50.2%) of the children did housework
In comparison with other forms of work, in 2016, approximately 716 thousand children aged 5 to 17 worked for their own consumption, that is, 1.8% of the total, and 20.1 million worked in the field of care of persons and housework (50.2%).
Among the persons who worked for their own consumption, 91.6% were students, and, among those who did housework, 95.1% were students. These results indicate that, although these tasks were not part of the economic production, that did not stop most of them to remain in school.
The North Region had the biggest percentage of children doing housework in the production for own consumption (3.4%), followed by the Northeast Region (2.5%). In terms of housework, the highlights were the South (60.5%) and Central West Region (55.1%).
Considering only the hours used for housework, results show more dedication from girsl (9.6 hours) than from boys (6.9 hours).
In addition to that, 72.3% of the employed children also worked for their own consumption an in activities related to the care of persons or household tasks.