PNAD 2013 depicts labor market and life conditions in Brazil

September 18, 2014 09h00 AM | Last Updated: February 21, 2018 01h43 PM

Note: The following text was updated on September 26, 2014 based on the revised data of PNAD 2013. The estimates which have been changed are in bold letter in the text and in italic in the subheadings. Published in September 18, 2014, the original release is available for comparison at the right side. More details on the revision of PNAD 2013 can be seen in the release of September 19, 2014 in the following link:

http://saladeimprensa.ibge.gov.br/en/noticias?view=noticia&id=1&busca=1&idnoticia=2725

The National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) 2013 revealed that the Brazilian population was estimated at 201.5 million persons, being 51.4% women, 46.3% white persons and 37.6% persons aged 40 years and over. In 2013, persons aged between 40 and 59 years were the most representative among migrants, both in relation to the municipalities (33.7%) and to the Federation Units (35.2%). The illiteracy rate of persons aged 15 years and over stayed at 8.5%, which corresponded to 13.3 million persons.

The unemployed population rose 6.3%, and the employed, 0.6%, both in relation to 2012. The unemployment rate grew from 6.1% to 6.5% in 2013, becoming the year with the second lowest rate in the harmonized series between 2001 and 2013. Nevertheless, jobs with formal contract remained rising, growing 2.3% in relation to 2012 and comprising 75.8% of the persons employed in the private sector. Child and teenager labor declined 10.6% in relation to 2012, meaning less 379.8 thousand children and teenagers aged between 5 and 17 years in the labor market.

The monthly household earnings registered a real increase between 2012 and 2013 (from R$ 2,867 to R$ 2,933), as well as earnings from all jobs (from R$ 1,590 to R$ 1,681) and from all sources (from R$ 1,516 to R$ 1,567). The Gini index for earnings from labor changed from 0.496 in 2012 to 0.495 in 2013 (the higher the index, the higher the inequality), whereas the same index for earnings from all sources fell from 0.505 to 0.501 in the same period. All employment categories obtained real gains in terms of earnings from the main job in 2013, highlighted by workers without a formal contract (7.7%).

The number of permanent private housing units was estimated at 65.1 million in 2013, 85.0% of them supplied with water, 63.4% with sewage collection network, 89.4% with waste collection, 99.6% with electricity and 92.5% with telephone. The percentage of housing units with computer accessing the Internet increased to 42.4%. Approximately 85.6 million persons aged 10 years and over accessed the Internet in the reference period of the last three months in 2013, 49.4% of the total persons within this age bracket.

The survey brought also a series of harmonized results (excluding the rural areas of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará and Amapá), highlighting the decline in the illiteracy (from 12.4% in 2001 to 8.4% in 2013) and unemployment rates (from 9.4% to 6.5%), as well as the increase in the percentage of persons employed with a formal contract (from 55.3% to 64.8%) and in the monthly real earnings from labor (from R$ 1,300 to R$ 1,651) and from all sources (from R$ 1,315 to R$ 1,567).

PNAD has been carried out since 1967, producing information on population, migration, education, labor, income and housing units for Brazil, Major Regions, states and metropolitan areas. The 2001-2012 results (reweighted based on the last population projection) and those of 2013 are available on www.ibge.gov.br/english/estatistica/populacao/trabalhoerendimento/pnad2013.

Population mobility and composition: Brazil had 201.5 million inhabitants

In 2013, the resident population in Brazil was estimated at 201.5 million persons, 0.9% (1.8 million) above that of 2012. Women corresponded to 51.4% of the population. The North Region was the only Major Region in which men surpassed women (50.1%). Persons aged 60 years and over corresponded to 13.0% of the population, 0.4 percentage points higher than in 2012. The participation of the age bracket up to 24 years was 38.8%, 0.8 percentage points lower than in 2012. In 2013, 46.3% of the resident population (93.2 million persons) self declared as white persons; the group of brown persons (90.6 million) represented 45.0%; 8.0% self declared as black persons (16.1 million); and 1.6 million persons (0.8%) self declared other color or race (Indian and yellow).

The migration estimates by age bracket in 2013 showed that persons aged between 40 and 59 years were the most representative among migrants, both in relation to the municipalities (33.7%) and to the Federation Units (35.6%). They were followed by persons aged between 18 and 39 years, whose participation was 33.6% and 33.7%, respectively. In 2013, non-native persons of the Federation Unit of residence added up to 31.3 million, 15.5% of the Brazilian population. Concerning the municipality of residence, the number of non-native persons was 79.2 million, 39.3% of the population.

Education: illiteracy rate of 15 year old and over was 8.3%

In 2013, the illiteracy rate of persons aged 15 years and over was estimated at 8.5%, which corresponded to 13.3 million persons. The rate was reduced by 0.2 percentage points (less 11.8 thousand illiterate persons) in relation to 2012. The rate might be influenced by the illiteracy rates of those aged 40 years and over, who corresponded to 37.6% of the population: the rate was 9.4% in the group between 40 and 59 years and 24.3% for persons aged 60 and over, whereas it was below 3.0% among the persons aged less than 30 years.

The majority of the illiterate persons were women (50.5%), an indicator also recorded in the Southeast (56.2%), South (54.8%) and Central-West (50.5%) Regions. In spite of dropping, particularly in the Northeast (from 17.4% in 2012 to 16.9% in 2013), this was still the Major Region with the highest illiteracy rate in Brazil, accounting for 53.5% of the total number of illiterate persons.

The schooling rate of persons aged between 4 and 5 years reached 81.4%, 3.3 percentage points above that of 2012 (78.1%). The highest schooling rate was registered among children aged between 6 and 14 years (98.4%), which corresponded to the primary level.

Labor: Employment-population ratio drops from 61.8% in 2012 to 61.2% in 2013

The employed population added up to 95.9 million persons in 2013, having grown 0.6% in relation to 2012. Male employed population added up to 55.0 million persons and female´s, 40.9 million. The only reduction in this population was recorded in the North Region (-0.8%), while the Northeast and South posted the highest percentage increases: 1.0% and 1.7%, respectively. The employment-population ratio (proportion of employed persons in the working age population) changed from 61.8% in 2012 to 61.2% in 2013.

The working age population (PIA), i.e., those aged 15 years and over, reached 156.6 million in 2013. In this universe, approximately 102.5 million (65.5%) comprised the economically active population (PEA) and 54.1 million persons (34.5%) comprised the non-economically active population (PNEA). PIA, PEA and PNEA increased 1.6%, 1.0% and 2.9% in relation to 2012, respectively. The activity rate (proportion of persons at working age included in PEA) was 65.5% in 2013, against 65.9% in 2012 and 68.6% in 2008. The lowest rate was registered in the Northeast (62.6%), whereas the South (68.9%) and Central-West (67.8%) Regions recorded the highest ones.

Jobs with formal contract reach 75.8% in private sector

In 2013, the number of workers with a formal contract in the private sector rose 2.3% in relation to 2012 and reached 36.4 million persons. As a result, the percentage of workers with a formal contract changed from 74.6% to 75.8% in the private sector. All the Major Regions registered increases, being the highest in the North (4.0%) and Northeast (3.7%). The proportion of workers with a formal contract in the private sector was higher in the Southeast (81.5%) and South (82.6%). The lowest proportion remained in the Northeast (60.1%), yet posting the second highest growth in relation to 2012 (1.8 percentage points). The North Region registered the highest growth (2.1 percentage points), hitting the proportion of 63.4%.

In 2013, 61.5% of the employed persons (59.0 million persons) contributed to social security. This contingent expanded 2.7% in relation to 2012, when the percentage of employed persons contributing to social security was 60.3%. The proportion of contributors was above the average in the Southeast (70.8%), South (71.4%) and Central-West (65.0%), standing below the average in the North (44.8%) and Northeast (43.5%).

Among the 19.9 million self-employed workers in 2013, 3.5 million (17.8%) worked in enterprises registered in the National Directory of Legal Entities (CNPJ). In 2012, this percentage was 16.8%. Among the 3.6 million employers, 2.8 million (78.6%) worked in enterprises registered in CNPJ. In 2012, they were 76.2%.

Unemployment rate stays at 6.5% in 2013

The unemployment rate (proportion of unemployed persons in relation to the economically active population) changed from 6.1% to 6.5% in 2013. 2013 was the year with the second lowest rate in the harmonized series between 2001 and 2013. Among the Major Regions, the lowest rate was recorded in the South (4.0%), and the highest one, in the Northeast (7.9%). The highest change over 2012 took place in the North Region, where this indicator increased 1.1 percentage points, reaching 7.3% in 2013. Between 2012 and 2013, the unemployment rate changed from 21.0% to 22.8% among the persons aged between 15 and 17 years; from 13.2% to 13.6% in the bracket between 18 and 24 years; from 4.8% to 5.3% among the persons aged between 25 and 49 years, and from 2.2% to 2.3% for those aged 50 and over.

The contingent of unemployed persons (jobless persons who were trying to be inserted in the labor market) was 6.6 million in 2013. It represented a growth of 6.3% or more 393.5 thousand persons in this situation in relation to 2012. Unemployment increased in the North (17.2%), Central-West (11.0%), Southeast (7.0%) and Northeast (4.7%), and declined in the South (-2.9%).

Child and teenager labor falls 10.6% in relation to the previous year

The survey registered 3.2 million workers aged between 5 and 17 years in Brazil in 2013, which represented a reduction of 10.6% (379.8 thousand children and teenagers) in the child and teenager labor in relation to 2012. Approximately 2.7 million (84.1%) of them were teenagers aged between 14 and 17 years. Compared with 2012, the most relevant percentage drop was in the group aged between 5 and 9 years (-26.3%), or less 21.6 thousand children working. The employment-population ratio of persons aged between 5 and 17 years was 8.4% in 2012 and dropped to 7.5% in 2013. This indicator declined in all the Major Regions. In 2013, the real monthly per capita household earnings of workers aged between 5 and 17 years (R$ 554) was smaller than those who were not working (R$ 610). Among the employed population aged between 5 and 13 years, 64.2% worked in agriculture.

Percentage of workers with full higher education reaches 13.9%

Concerning level of schooling between 2012 and 2013, the proportion of workers with partial primary (from 27.9% to 26.2%) and partial secondary (6.7% to 6.5%) reduced, whereas the proportion of those with no education (6.6% to 7.1%), full primary (10.3% to 10.5%), full secondary (30.0% to 30.3%), partial higher education (5.2% to 5.3%) and full higher education (13.1% to 13.9%, the highest rise), increased.

In 2013, 45.3% of the employed persons (43.4 million) worked in the services group of activities, against 45.1% in 2012. The total number of persons employed in services increased 1.0% (or 419.4 thousand persons) between 2012 and 2013, while the employed population grew 0.6% in the same period. Civil construction was another highlight: its contingent of workers rose 6.2% (514 thousand persons) in 2013, reaching 8.8 million persons. Civil construction accounted for 8.7% of the employed population in 2012, having risen to 9.2% in 2013.

Earnings: 45.1% of housing units earn up to one minimum wage per resident

Considering the 60.9 million housing units with earnings between 2012 and 2013, the monthly average earnings changed from R$ 2,867 to R$ 2,933, an increase of 2.3%. The Central-West Region recorded the highest household earnings (R$ 3,525), and the Northeast Region, the lowest (R$ 1,988).

These two regions posted the highest inequalities in terms of the distribution of these earnings, as the Gini index stayed at 0.506 in the Northeast and at 0.510 in the Central-West. In 2013, the average Gini index for household earnings in Brazil stayed at 0.497. The Gini index measures the level of concentration of income, ranging from zero (perfect equality) to one (maximum inequality).

In 2013, 45.1% of the Brazilian housing units that declared any type of earnings counted on up to one minimum wage per resident of the housing unit. Compared with the previous year, the increase of the per capita real monthly average household earnings in Brazil was of 2.9% (from R$ 1,110 to R$ 1,142).

Real monthly average earnings from all jobs rise 3.8% in 2013

The real monthly average earnings from all jobs of employed persons aged 15 years and over with earnings in 2013 was estimated at R$ 1,651,  3.8% higher than that in 2012 (R$ 1,590). The North Region posted the highest increase: 4.7% (from R$ 1,263 to R$ 1,322). By changing 4.5% (from R$ 1,906 to R$ 1,992), the Central-West Region registered the highest average earnings. By also changing 4.5% (from R$ 1,086 to R$ 1,135), the Northeast Region recorded the lowest earnings. Five Federation Units reduced these types of earnings: Acre (from R$ 1,342 to R$ 1,302), Amapá (from R$ 1,632 to R$ 1,616), Ceará (from R$ 1,008 to R$ 991), Pernambuco (from R$ 1,128 to R$ 1,125) and Espírito Santo (from R$1,577 to R$ 1,557).

The Gini index for the distribution of the monthly average earnings from all jobs stayed at 0.495 in 2013, against 0.496 in 2012. The lowest level of concentration of income was recorded in the South Region (0.453). The Northeast Region posted the highest level of inequality (0.524).

The real monthly average earnings from all sources of persons with earnings aged 15 years and over increased 3.4% in relation to 2012, changing from R$ 1,516 to R$ 1,567. The Northeast Region registered the highest increase, 4.4% (from R$ 1,014 to R$ 1,059), in spite of recording the lowest average earnings from all sources. This type of earnings pointed to a Gini index for Brazil of 0.501, the lowest index since 2004 (0.555). The Central-West Region reported the highest inequality for earnings from all sources (0.519), as well as the highest average earnings (R$ 1,911).

Distance of average earnings among men and women decreases

The proportion between earnings from labor of women and men changed from 72.8% in 2012 to 73.5% in 2013. On average, men earned R$ 1,857 and women, R$ 1,365 in 2013. Another way of registering the different earnings by sex was through the analysis of the proportion of persons earning up to one minimum wage in 2013: 21.4% of the employed men against 30.2% of the employed women. Moreover, proportionally more women were employed without earnings or earning only benefits (8.9%) than men (4.9%).

Persons employed without contract increases more the earnings (7.7%)

All employment categories increased their real monthly average earnings from the main job between 2012 and 2013, 4.2% on average (from R$ 1,423 to R$ 1,483). The other persons employed without a formal contract recorded the highest increase, 7.7% (from R$ 869 to R$ 936), followed by the military and statutory servants, with 4.1% (from R$ 2,576 to 2,681); domestic workers without a formal contract, with 3.3% (from R$ 519 to R$ 536); workers with a formal contract, with 2.6% (from R$ 1,483 to R$ 1,522); and domestic workers with a formal contract, with 1.6% (from R$ 857 to R$ 871).

Housing units: 42.4% of housing units with computers accessing the Internet

In 2013, the number of permanent private housing units was estimated at 65.1 million, an increase of 2.1% in relation to the previous year (63.8 million). The occupation status was distributed in 2013 as follows: 74.4% were privately-owned (69.3% of them paid off and 5.1% being paid), 17.9% were rented, 7.4% yielded and 0.4% under another status.

Concerning the ownership of durable goods, the number of housing units with stoves (1.3 million more, reaching 98.8% of the total in 2012 and 2013), TV sets (1.3 million more, reaching 97.2% in 2012 and 2013) and washing machines (2.2 million more, with the percentage rising from 55.2% to 57.5%) increased. From the 31.8 million housing units in Brazil with microcomputers (48.9% of the total, 2.3 million more than in the previous year, when they accounted for 46.4%), 27.6 million accessed the Internet (42.4% of the total housing units, 1.9 million more than in 2012, when they represented 40.3%). The number of housing units with radios (2.3 million less, falling from 80.9% to 75.7% of the total) and DVD players (1.6 million housing units less, falling from 76.0% to 72.1%) decreased. Regarding vehicles, the number of housing units in which at least one resident owned a car (1.4 million more, rising from 42.5% to 43.7%) or a motorcycle (621 thousand more, changing from 20.0% to 20.5%) increased.

Between 2012 and 2013, the number of housing units supplied by services of water supply (888.9 thousandmore, with the percentage in relation to the total housing units changing from 85.4% to 85.0%), sewage network or septic tank connected to the network (952 thousand more, rising from 63.3% to 63.4%), waste collection (1.6 million more, rising from 88.8% to 89.4%) and electricity (1.4 more, changing from 99.5% to 99.6%).

The number of housing units with any kind of telephone also increased by 2.1 million, rising from 91.2% to 92.5% of the total. In 2013, 1.8 million housing units owned only a landline telephone (2.7% of the total), lower than that in 2012 (1.9 million, or 3.0% of the total). The number of housing units only accessing a mobile telephone increased by 2.4 million units, rising from 51.4% of the total in 2012 to 54.0% in 2013.

Technology: 49.4% of persons aged 10 years and over accessing the Internet

Approximately 85.6 million persons aged 10 years and over accessed the Internet in Brazil during the period of reference of the survey in 2013, representing an increase of 1.6% in relation to the previous year. Between 2012 and 2013, the percentage proportion of Internet users changed from 49.2% to 49.4% of the total resident population. More than half of the Internet users were aged between 10 and 29 years (52.9%).

The survey pointed out that 130.2 million persons aged 10 years and over owned a mobile telephone for personal use, representing a growth of 5.7 million in relation to the previous year. Considering the population aged 10 years and over, the percentage of those who owned such device increased from 72.8% in 2012 to 75.2% in 2013.

Harmonized series between 2001 and 2013: illiteracy falls from 12.4% to 8.4%

The results of the historical comparison between 2001 and 2013 were harmonized with the geographic coverage of PNAD in place up to 2003. This procedure excluded the rural areas of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará and Amapá, which could lead to differences when comparing complete data. In this time series, the illiteracy rate of persons aged 15 years and over decreased from 12.4% in 2001 to 8.4% in 2013, which corresponded to a reduction of 2.4 million illiterate persons. Considering the complete data, the rate in 2013 stayed at 8.5%.

The proportion of persons aged up to 17 years in the total population decreased, whereas the percentage of persons aged over 40 years increased. The proportion of persons aged between 0 and 9 years fell from 18.7% in 2001 to 13.9% in 2013, and changed from 15.9% to 13.4% for those aged between 10 and 17 years. The proportion of persons aged between 40 and 59 years increased from 19.8% to 24.7%, and rose from 9.0% to 13.1% for those aged 60 years and over.

The behavior of the employment-population ratio of persons aged 15 and over changed from 60.7% in 2001 to 63.6% in 2008, when it reached its peak, then dropping to 61.1% in 2013. For persons aged between 5 and 17 years, the employment-population ratio fell from 12.7% in 2001 to 7.3% in 2013. Between 2001 and 2013, the unemployment rate showed a downward trend, reporting few highs. It hit its lowest level in 2012 (6.2%), slightly rising to 6.5% in 2013, though in a level below that between 2001 (9.4%) and 2009 (8.3%), with its highest level in 2003 (9.7%).

In 2001, 55.3% of the total workers (excluding domestic workers) were employed with a formal contract. In 2002, this proportion reached its lowest level: 54.5%. Employments with a formal contract increased after 2003, reaching 64.8% in 2013. The percentage of employed persons contributing to social security also showed the same behavior: 46.9% in 2001, 46.2% in 2002 and 62.3% in 2013.

The evolution of the real monthly average earnings from labor registered different moments between 2001 and 2013: annual losses from 2001 (R$ 1,300) to 2004 (R$ 1,169) and annual gains from 2005 (R$ 1,222) to 2013 (R$ 1,651). It grew 27.0% between 2001 and 2013. The evolution of the real monthly average earnings from all sources showed a similar pattern: annual losses from 2001 (R$ 1,315) to 2004 (R$ 1,167) and annual gains from 2005 (R$ 1,226) to 2013 (R$ 1,567). Compared with 2001, the growth was 19.2% in 2013.

The distribution of earnings from labor and from all sources improved. Between 2001 and 2013, the Gini index (the higher the index, more unequal the distribution) for the distribution of the earnings from labor continuously decreased (from 0.563 to 0.495). The index for the distribution of earnings from all sources stood stable in 2001 and 2002, with a coefficient of 0.569, yet continuously dropping from 2003 onwards (from 0.560 to 0.501 in 2013).

The distribution of the employed population by group of activity pointed to the reduced participation of employed persons in the agricultural activity (from 20.0% in 2001 to 13.3% in 2013). The participation of employed persons in the manufacturing industry was 13.8% in 2001 and rose to 14.5% in 2007 and 2008, yet reversing downward and reaching its lowest level in 2013 (12.7%). Trade and repair activity increased from 17.0% in 2001 to 18.0% in 2013.

Concerning the basic services, the highlights were the increased proportion of housing units supplied with water (from 81.1% of the total in 2001 to 86.0% in 2013), sewage network or septic tank connected to the network (from 54.7% to 64.4%), waste collection (from 83.2% to 90.5%) and electricity (from 96.0% to 99.7%).

The proportion of housing units in which at least one resident accessed telephone services (mobile and/or landline) increased from 58.9% to 93.1%, the proportion of those accessing only landline telephone reduced (from 27.9% to 2.8%) and the proportion of those accessing only mobile telephone increased (from 7.8% to 53.9%).

Regarding the ownership of durable goods, the proportion of housing units with stoves (from 97.6% to 98.9%), refrigerators (from 85.1% to 97.7%), TV sets (from 89.0% to 97.4%), microcomputers (from 12.6% to 49.5%) and microcomputers accessing the Internet (from 8.5% to 43.0%) increased. On the other hand, the proportion of housing units with freezers declined from 18.7% to 16.9%.