MUNIC 2015: less than 1/3 of Brazilian municipalities have environmental permitting
April 15, 2016 10h41 AM | Last Updated: January 19, 2018 06h39 PM
In 2015, environment permitting for enterprises and activities of local environmental impact was a reality for 30.4% (1,696) of the municipalities in the country. This percentage is even smaller among smaller-sized municipalities, being only 21.3% (341) in those with 5,001 to 10,000 residents. Municipalities with a population above 500,000 residents make up 90.2% (37). On the other hand, between 2012 and 2015, the percentage of municipalities which had started to elaborate the Local Agenda 21, a planning instrument for the construction of sustainable societies, rose from 18.1% (1,010) to 22.0% (1,225), having recorded increase among all ranges of the population. These data are presented by the Survey of Basic Municipal Information - Profile of Municipalities (MUNIC) 2015.
Between 2012 and 2015, the percentage of municipalities in Brazil which charged some type of fare in Brazil rose from 92.4% (5,144) to 93.7% (5,218). The public lighting service fee is the most common one, present in 78.3% (4,087) of the municipalities which charged some type of fee, followed by the garbage collection fee, with 52.2% (2,726). The parcel of municipalities making use of some kind of incentive to the implementation of enterprises fell from 62.8% (3,498) in 2012 to 61.7% (3,437) in 2015. Among the types of incentive used, there was significant increase in exemption from IPTU (Urban Building and Land Tax), adopted by an increasing percentage of municipalities (from 29.1% in 2012 to 39.5% in 2015) and decrease among places which made and option for IPTU reduction (from 34.3% to 28.1%).
Outsourcing by city governments was surveyed both in the advisory segment and in the direct rendering of public services. According to data from the survey, 85.8% of the municipalities hire advisory services and 85.6% contract companies to perform public services. Accounting/financial advisory is the most frequent service, provided to 82.9% of the municipalities which contract advisors. Regarding the outsourcing of public services, the collection of solid waste from hospitals took place in 76.1% of the municipalities which hired outsourced services, followed by collection of solid waste from housing units (53.6%), street lighting (44.3%) and urban sanitation (42.1%).
With regard to human resources, from 2005 to 2015, the percentage of municipal servants changed from 2.6% to 3.2% of the Brazilian population. The number of persons employed in direct and indirect municipal administration in 2015 was 6,549,551 persons. That corresponds to an increase of 37.4% in relation to 2005 (4,767,602). The parcel of municipal servants in direct administration changed from 94.3% (4,494,154) in 2005 to 95.0% (6,224,235) in 2015. In indirect administration, this percentage changed from 5.7% (273,448) in 2005 to 5.0% (325,316) in 2015.
In 2015, the 13th edition of MUNIC brings information about human resources, urban planning, resources for the management, outsourcing and computerizing, environmental management and interinstitutional agreements. The survey investigated all the 5,570 municipalities, having as informants city goverments and their subsectors. The complete publication is available at www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/economia/perfilmunic/2015/.
Environmental management: only 10.3% of the municipalities have a geographic information system
In 2015, 30.4% of the municipalities had environmental permitting This percentage is directly proportional to the size range of municipalities, being conducted in only 21.3% (341) of the municipalities between 5,001 and 10,000 residents, but reaching 90.2% of the municipalities with more than 500,000 persons. In terms of the types of permits granted in 2014, 66.6% (1,130) of the municipalities had obtained preliminary permit, 66.2% (1,123) building permit, and 71.8%, operation permit
Besides, it was observed that only 20.7% (1,152) of the Brazilian municipalities have a digitized municipal cartographic base and 10.3% (572) have a geographic information system, important instruments for more efficient enviornmental management and more quality in space management and analysis.
Between 2012 and 2015, the percentage of municipalities which started the elaboration of the Local Agenda 21 rose from 18.1% (1,010) to 22.0% (1,225) and increase was observed in all the ranges of the population. Among the Major Regions, only the Southeast Region did not record increase. The highlights area the municipalities with more than 500,000 residents, with increase from 57.9% (22) to 75.6% (31) and the North Region, which changed from 30.3% (136) to 39.6% (178). Agenda 21 is a planing instrument for the construction of sustainable societies, at different geographic bases, which gathers environmental methods aimed at environmental protection, social justice and economic efficiency.
Management resources: between 2012 and 2015, percentage of municipalities which make use of incentive to the implementation of enterprises falls
The parcel of municipalities which use some kind of mechanism to incentive the implementation of enterprises fell from 62.8% (3,498) in 2012 to 61.7% (3,437) in 2015. This decrease was observed in municipalities with more than 10,000 residents and in the Southeast, South and Central West. Among the types of incentive used, there was significant increase in the percentage of municipalities adopting exemption from IPTU (Urban Building and Land Tax, from 29.1% in 2012 to 39.5% in 2015) and a decrease among those which made and option for reduction in IPTU (from 34.3% to 28.1%).
The percentage of municipalities which charge some kind of fare all over Brazil rose from 92.4% (5,144) in 2012 to 93.7% (5,218) in 2015. The street lighting fare is the most common type, encompassing 78.3% (4,087) of the municipalities which charge some type of fare, followed by garbage collection and police power fares, which cover, respectively, 52.2% (2,726) and 48.8% (2,544) of the municipalities. Another type is urban sanitation, encompassing36.3% (1,893) of the municipalities. Finally, the fire extinction fare is present in only 4.5% (234) of the municipalities and 32.4% (1,690) of the municipalities have other types.
Outsourcing and computerization: part of the public services outsourced in 85.6% of the municipalities
In 2015, 85.8% of the municipalities hired outsourced advisory services. Accounting/financial advisory was the most frequent type, being performed in 82.9% of the municipalities which hire advisory services, followed by legal advisory, in 72%. It was also observed that the hiring of advisors is most frequent in municipalities with smaller populations, reaching 88.4% of the municipalities with up to 5,000 residents.
With regard to the outsourcing of public services, 85.6% of the municipalities hired companies for at least one of the activities surveyed, being the most common one the collection of solid waste, conducted by 76.1% of the municipalities with outsourced services, followed by collection of solid waste (53.6%), street lighting (44.3%) and urban sanitation (42.1%). In the South Region, 96.9% of the municipalities oursourced part of municipal services.
As for computerizing in municipal administration, 97.1% (5,410) of the municipalities had at least one computerized activity, for example, a registry or database in the fields of health, education and municipal property or budget and employee payroll control.
Human resources: from 2005 to 2015, percentage of municipal servants changes from 2.6% to 3.2% of the country's population
The number of persons employed in direct and indirect administration was 6,549,551 in 2015, which corresponds to an increase of 37.4% in relation to 2005, when it was 4,767,602. In 2005, municipal governments employed 2.6% of the total population; in 2015, this percentage changed to 3.2%. Direct administration concentrated 95.0% (6,224,235) of the municipal servants in 2015, versus 94.3% in 2005. In terms of indirect administration, these percentages were 5.0% in 2015 and 5.7% in 2005.
In 2015, and in 2005, most of the human resourses segment in direct and indirect administration was formed by statutory civil servants, representing 62.7% (3,902,727) in 2015 and 64.0% (2,876,485) in 2005. Considering servants in indirect municipal administration, however, there was slight change between 2005 and 2015: whereas in 2005 there was a predominance of contracts ruled by CLT (Consolidation of Brazilian Labor Laws), 52.3% (128,809), in 2015, statutory civil servants were the majority, with 41.1% (133,616) and CLT workers, with 38.7% (125,920).
Regulations and planning intruments: half of the municipalities have an urban master plan
In 2015, the urban master plan, a basic instrument to guide the policy of urban expansion and development in municipalities, was present in 50.0% (2,786) of the Brazilian municipalities, the same percentage as in 2013 and above that of 2005 (14.5%). A total 12.4% (691) of the municipalities were elaborating the plan, and 37.6% (2,092) neither had a plan nor were working on one. There was growing expansion of urban master plans in 2015: whereas in municipalities with up to 5 thousand residents only 28.9% (358) reported the existence of urban master plan, all the municipalities with more than 100 residents also had one.
Besides the urban master plan, other instruments were surveyed in 2013 and 2015. Among the instruments surveyed only in 2015, the most common ones were the regulation on environmental zoning or ecological -environmental zoning (28.0%) and the legislation on land regularization (26.1%).
Insterinstitutional articulation: 75.9% of the municipalities had a health care consortium
In comparison with 2011 results, 2015 was marked by an increase in the percentage of Brazilian municipalities which formed a public consortium with other municipalities, states or the Union, with a change from 59.2% (3,295) to 66.3% (3,691). Among the municipalities which reported being part of a public consortium, according to the partner, there was increase in the percentage of those with an intermunicipal consortium, with a change from 88.1% (2,903) in 2011 to 96.7% (3,571) in 2015.
Regardless of the partner, in 75.9% (2,800) of the municipalities the consortium accounted for healthcare services, in 35.2% (1,299), for management of solid waste, and in 25.2% (929), the environment.