Continuous PNAD: unemployment rate up in all Major Regions in Q1
May 19, 2016 01h49 PM | Last Updated: January 18, 2018 06h47 PM
The unemployment rate (10.9% in Brazil) advanced in all Major Regions in the 1st quarter of 2016 in relation to the same period of 2015: Northeast (from 9.6% to 12.8%), Southeast (from 8.0% to 11.4%), North (from 8.7% to 10.5%), Central-West (from 7.3% to 9.7%) and South Region (from 5.1% to 7.3%). In the 4th quarter of 2015, the rates were 10.5% in the Northeast, 9.6% in the Southeast, 8.6% in the North, 7.4% in the Central-West Region and 5.7% in the South.
Among the Federation Units, the biggest unemployment rates in the 1st quarter of 2016 were seen in Bahia (15.5%), Rio Grande do Norte (14.3%) and Amapá (14.3%), whereas the lowest rates were in Santa Catarina (6.0%), Rio Grande do Sul (7.5%) and Rondônia (7.5%).
The employment-population ratio (indicator that measures the share of the employed population in relation to the working-age population) in Brazil in the 1st quarter of 2016, was estimated at 54.7%. Only the Northeast Region (49.0%) stood below the country's average. In the other Regions, the employment-population ratio was 59.8% in the South, 58.6% in the Central-West, 55.9% in the Southeast and 55.0% in the North.
Santa Catarina (60.4%), Rio Grande do Sul (59.8%) and Mato Grosso do Sul (59.7%) recorded the highest results, whereas Alagoas (42.8%), Rio Grande do Norte (46.7%) and Ceará (47.2%) recorded the lowest employment-population ratio.
In the 1st quarter of 2016, the percentage of workers in the private sector with a labor contract in the Major Regions were of 85.1% in the South, 83.7% in the Southeast, 78.1% in the Central-West, 63.5% in the North and 63.1% in the Northeast. The average in Brazil was 78.1%. Santa Catarina (89.1%), Rio de Janeiro (86.3%) and São Paulo (85.5%) recorded the highest percentages of workers in the private sector with a labor contract, whereas Maranhão (52.5%), Piauí (53.3%) and Paraíba (57.3%) registered the lowest ones.
The average usual real earnings of workers stood above the average of Brazil (R$1,966) in the Southeast (R$ 2,299), Central-West (R$ 2,200) and South (R$ 2,098), whereas the North (R$ 1,481) and Northeast (R$ 1,323) stood below the average.
The Federal District registered the highest earnings (R$ 3,598), followed by São Paulo (R$ 2,588) and Rio de Janeiro (R$ 2,263). The lowest earnings were recorded in Maranhão (R$ 1,032), Piauí (R$ 1,263) and Ceará (R$ 1,285).
The average usual real wage bill of employed persons (R$ R$ 173.5 billion reais for the country as a whole) stood at R$ 90.6 billion in the Southeast, R$ 29.5 billion in the South, R$ 27.6 billion in the Northeast, R$ 15.7 billion in the Central-West and R$ 9.8 billion in the North.
The complete publication of the Continuous PNAD, with the data released today, can be accessed here. The main results for Brazil as a whole had already been released on 04/29/2016. This current issue covers, besides the information according to the 80 regional segments of the survey, details on the main indicators of the labor market by sex, age and level of schooling.
Northeast Region posts the highest unemployment rate
The unemployment rate had regional differences of levels along all the analyzed quarters. In the 1st quarter of 2016, the Northeast Region posted the highest rate, 12.8%, and the South Region, the lowest, 7.3%. In the annual comparison, an increase of 3.4 percentage points (p.p.) was seen in the unemployment rate of the Southeast, the highest advance among the Regions.
All Major Regions recorded significant differences in the unemployment rate by sex. In Brazil, the rate stood at 9.5% for men and 12.7% for women, a difference of 3.2 p.p. The North Region showed the biggest difference (5.4 p.p. up for women) and the South and Southeast Regions presented the lowest difference (2.9 p.p. up for women).
By level of schooling, the highest unemployment rate, in Brazil, was observed for persons with unfinished secondary education. The rate for the group of persons who had not finished higher education was estimated at 13.3%, more than the double of the rate of those with complete higher education (5.9%). The same happened in all the Major Regions.
By age groups, the unemployment rate of the population aged 18 to 24 years old, in Brazil, was 24.1%. In the Southeast (25.5%) and Northeast Regions (27.4%), the unemployment rate of persons aged 18 to 24 was grater than the national average for this age group. The lowest rate was registered in the South Region (17.2%). Another highlight is the unemployment rate in the Southeast for the age group from 14 to 17 years old (48.4%).
Unemployment rate, in the week of reference, of persons aged 14 years and over, by age groups, according to Major Regions - Q1/2016
More than half (53.6%) of the unemployed in Brazil finished high school
In the unemployed population, the percentage of women was higher than men's. In Q1 2016, they represented 50.8% of the unemployed in Brazil. Just in the Northeast Region was the percentage of women in the unemployed population (48,9%) lower than men's. The highest contribution of women to the unemployment rate was seen in the South (54.4%).
The group aged between 14 and 17 accounted for 10.0% of the unemployed persons and youngsters of 18 to 24 years old were 33.2% in Brazil. The adults aged 25 to 39 (34.7%) were the biggest share of the unemployed persons. This distribution did not change throughout the time series of the survey; however, in relation to the 1st quarter of 2015, the contribution of the under aged to the unemployed population presented a rise of 0.2 percentage points.
In the 1st quarter of 2016, 53.6% of the unemployed persons in the country had finished at least the secondary education. Around 23.8% had not finished primary school and those with complete higher education represented 9.2%.
Distribution of persons aged 14 years and over, unemployed in the week of reference, by level of schooling, according to Major Regions - Q1/2016
South and Southeast with greater women participation among the employed
In the employed population, there was predominance of man in Brazil (57.4%) and in all Regions, especially in the North, where men represented 61.4% of workers in the 1st quarter of 2016. South and Southeast are the Regions with greater women participation (both with 43.8%).
The analysis by age groups showed that 12.8% of the employed were youngsters of 18 to 24 years old. Adults of 25 to 39 and 40 to 59 year of age represented 78.1% and the elderly accounted for 7.1% of the employed. The Region with the highest proportion of employed youngsters was the North, where the population aged 18 to 24 represented 14.1% of the employed.
By level of schooling, the survey showed in the 1st quarter of 2016 that more than half of the Brazilian employed persons had finished at least the secondary education (55.0%), 29.3% had not finished the primary education and 17.9% had finished higher education.
In the North (37.6%) and Northeast Regions (39.0%), the percentage of uneducated persons up to the persons with the primary education was higher than the other Regions. In the Southeast Region (34.4%), the percentage of persons that had finished secondary education was above those of the other Regions. The Southeast Region (21.6%) presented the biggest percentage of persons with a higher degree, whereas the North Region had the lowest one (12.2%).
The survey pointed out to regional differences among the types of insertion of the employee in the workforce. In the North (33.6%) and Northeast (31.9%), the percentage of self-employed was higher than that of the other Regions. The same happened with contributing family workers, which presented the greatest participation in the North (6.1%) and Northeast Regions (3.5%).
The percentage of workers with a formal labor contract in the private sector portrayed different scenarios according to the Regions: the North (63.5%) and Northeast Regions (63.1%) had lower levels in relation to the other Regions. It is worth mentioning that in the annual comparison, the South was the only Region that had a rise in this indicator, moving from 84.7% in the 1st quarter of 2015 to 85.1% in the 1st quarter 2016.
In the Northeast, less than half (49.0%) of the working age persons are employed
The employment-population ratio recorded different levels in the regional context. The South (59.8%) and the Central-West Region (58.6%) recorded the highest percentages and the Northeast Region, the lowest (49.0%).
The employment-population ratio in Brazil was estimated at 65.8% for men and at 44.6%, for women - a difference of 21.2 p.p. Among the Major Regions, the highest difference was seen in the North Region (27.0 p.p.) and the lowest, in the South (19.4 p.p.)
The age group of 25 to 39 years of age recorded the highest employment-population ratio (73.6%), followed by the group of 40 to 59 years old (68.5%). For the youngsters of 18 to 24 years of age, the employment-population ratio stood at 51.9%. The estimate was 13.0%, for underage persons from 14 to 17 years old, while it was 21.9% for the elderly (aged 60 and over).
In the groups of a higher level of schooling, the employment-population ratio was higher. In the 1st quarter of 2016, 36.0% of the uneducated persons were employed in the country. In the group of people with a higher degree, the employment-population ratio reached 77.6%. Among the Major Regions, the highlight was the employment-population ratio in the North, which was high both for the least educated (44.7%) and the most educated (80.6%).
Women are 66.1% of the population out of the workforce
In the 1st quarter of 2016, in Brazil, 38.6% of the persons at working age were classified as out of the workforce (they were neither employed nor seeking for a job). The Northeast Region registered the highest portion of persons out of the workforce (43.9%). The South (35.4%) and Central-West Regions (35.2%) had he lowest percentages.
The population out of the workforce was compound mostly by women, who represented 66.1% of the population in the 1st quarter of 2016. In all the Regions the behavior was the same.
About 35.9% of the population out of the workforce comprised the elderly (persons aged 60 years and over). Those aged less than 25 added up to 28.2% and the adults, aged between 25 and 59 years old, represented 35.9%.
In relation to level of schooling, more than half of the population out of the workforce had finished primary education (52.6%) and slightly more than one forth had finished at least high school (26.6%).