PNAD 2014: Unemployed population increases, trend to reduce inequality remains
November 13, 2015 12h10 PM | Last Updated: January 17, 2018 01h48 PM
The National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) 2014 showed that the unemployed population increased 9.3% (617.2 thousand persons) between 2013 and 2014, reaching 7.3 million persons aged 15 years and over. Unemployment expanded in every region, particularly in the Southeast (15.8%) and the Northeast (5.2%). The unemployment rate grew from 6.5% to 6.9% in this period, hitting 7.3% in the Southeast and 8.0% in the Northeast. The employment population ratio - proportion of employed persons in the population aged 15 years and over - also increased from 61.2% to 61.9% between 2013 and 2014. Concerning the insertion in the labor market, the participation of employed persons fell from 62.3% to 61.3%, whereas that of self-employed persons increased from 20.7% to 21.4%. The contingent of persons employed with a formal contract in non-agricultural activities rose 1.0% (more 345 thousand persons), despite the drop of 1.2% (less 220 thousand persons) in the Southeast.
Between 2013 and 2014, the growth of the per capita average monthly real earnings in Brazil was 2.4% (from R$ 1,217 to R$ 1,246). While the households belonging to those 10% with lower per capita household income reported a real increase of 6.2% (from R$ 146 to R$ 155), the households belonging to those 10% with higher income reported just an increase of 2.1% (from R$ 5,076 to R$ 5,183), pointing to a drop in the inequality of the distribution of the per capita household earnings. Earnings from labor rose 0.8% (from R$ 1,760 to R$ 1,774) and the Gini index of the distribution of these earnings, which was in a downward trend since 2004, changed from 0.495 in 2013 to 0.490 in 2014 (the lesser the index, the lesser the inequality). In this same period, the Gini index of the earnings from all sources changed from 0.501 to 0.497, and that of the household earnings changed from 0.497 to 0.494.
Having registered 8.5% in 2013, the illiteracy rate of persons aged 15 years and over declined to 8.3% in 2014, though still showing distortions among the regions, like 16.6% in the Northeast and 4.4% in the South. The schooling rate - percentage of persons attending school - increased among children between 4 and 5 years (from 81.4% in 2013 to 82.7% in 2014) and remained registering its highest level in the group aged between 6 and 14 years, in which it hit 98.5%.
PNAD recorded an increase of 4.5% (143.5 thousand) in the number of employed children and teenagers aged between 5 and 17 years, adding up to 3.3 million (8.1% of this age bracket) under this condition in 2014 (they were 3.2 million in 2013, the equivalent of 7.5% of the total).
For the first time ever, PNAD showed that the proportion of persons that accessed the Internet through personal computers surpassed half of the resident population aged 10 years and over (from 49.4% in 2013 to 54.4% in 2014), reaching 95.4 million and recording an increase of 11.4%. The ownership of mobile telephones for personal use increased 4.9% in 2014 (more 6.4 million persons), adding up to 136.6 million persons (77.9%).
PNAD 2014 also brought data on the population mobility and composition, housing and durable goods, as well as the series of harmonized indicators (except for the rural areas of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará and Amapá), which allows comparisons in the 2001-2014 period. PNAD has been carried out since 1967, picturing Brazil, Major Regions, states and nine metropolitan areas. The complete publication of PNAD can be accessed here.
Population mobility and composition: proportion of senior citizens keeps growing
The Brazilian population on the reference date of PNAD (September 27, 2014) was estimated at 203.2 million persons. It meant more 1.7 million inhabitants in relation to 2013 (rise of 0.9%). The biggest population was in the Southeast (85.3 million) and the smallest, in the Central-West (15.3 million). In relation to 2013, the biggest population changes took place in the Central-West (1.5%) and in the North (1.4%), and the smallest, in the Northeast (0.7%).
In 2014, senior citizens - persons aged 60 years and over - represented 13.7% of the population, against 13.0% in 2013. The highest percentages of senior citizens were in the South (15.2%) and in the Southeast (15.1%) and the lowest, in the North Region (9.1%). Concerning color or race, 45.5% of the population declared themselves as white in 2014, whereas 45.0% declared themselves as brown; 8.6% black and 0.9% Indian or yellow. In 2014, the Federal District remained with the highest percentage of persons born in other Federation Units (49.3%) and Rio Grande do Sul, with the lowest (4.2%).
Education: illiteracy rate declines from 8.5% in 2013 to 8.3% in 2014
In 2014, the illiteracy rate of persons aged 15 years and over in Brazil was 8.3%, corresponding to 13.2 million persons and declining in relation to 2013 (8.5% or 13.3 million persons). The highest illiteracy rate was in the Northeast (16.6%), while the lowest rates were in the South (4.4%) and in the Southeast (4.6%).
The illiteracy rate was 8.6% for men and 7.9% for women in 2014. The highest differences between the rates, by sex, were in the North (9.7% for men and 8.3% for women) and in the Northeast (18.5% and 14.9%, respectively). It should be noticed that the illiteracy rate increased with the age, being 0.9% in the population aged between 15 and 19 years and hitting 23.1% among persons aged 60 years and over.
Schooling of children between 4 and 5 years old increases
Between 2013 and 2014, the schooling rate of children aged 4 and 5 years increased (from 81.4% to 82.7%). The groups between 15 and 17 years (84.3%) and between 18 and 24 years (30.0%) were stable. In 2014, the group between 6 and 14 years registered the highest schooling rate (98.5%); in 2013, this rate was 98.4%.
In 2014, 32.0% of the population aged 25 years and over did not complete the primary level of education, and 25.5% completed the secondary level. In relation to 2013, the proportion of persons without any education or with less than a year of education decreased (from 12.3% to 11.7%) and that of persons that completed higher education increased (from 12.6% to 13.1%).
Average years of schooling of population reaches 7.7 years
In 2014, the population had, on average, 7.7 years of schooling, against 7.6 in 2013. The highest average was in the Southeast (8.4 years) and the lowest, in the Northeast (6.6 years). Women had, on average, 8.0 years of schooling and men, 7.5 years. In every region, women had more years of schooling than men. The highest differences per sex were in the North (7.6 years for women and 6.8 years for men) and in the Northeast (7.0 years for women and 6.2 years for men). The lowest difference was in the Southeast (8.5 and 8.3 years, respectively).
Labor: unemployed population increases 15.8% in Southeast
The contingent of unemployed persons - persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed and had taken effective action to get a job - increased 9.3% (617.2 thousand persons) in 2014, hitting 7.3 million persons. Every region expanded the unemployment, particularly the Southeast (15.8%) and the Northeast (5.2%). More than half (56.7%) of those unemployed were women; 28.3% had never worked; 34.3% were youngsters between 18 and 24 years of age; 60.3% were black or brown and 50.1% of them had not completed the secondary school. Compared with 2013, the highlights were the reduction of the percentage of unemployed persons who had not worked before (from 31.0% to 28.3%) and the increase of those unemployed between 18 and 34 years (from 32.7% to 34.3%).
The unemployment rate in Brazil rose from 6.5% to 6.9% between 2013 and 2014, being the lowest rate reported in the South Region (4.0%) and the highest, in the Northeast (8.0%). The highest change over 2013 took place in the Southeast Region, where this indicator increased 0.8 percentage points (p.p.), reaching 7.3%. According to the age groups, the younger population reported the highest rates: between 15 and 17 years (25.7%) and between 18 and 24 years (15.2%). In 2014, the unemployment rate was 5.3% for men and 8.8% for women.
Employment-population ratio increases from 61.2% in 2013 to 61.9% in 2014
The employed population added up to 98.6 million persons in 2014. The parcel of those employed with 60 years of age and over increased (from 7.5% to 8.2% of the employed persons), following the trend to increase the participation of senior citizens in the resident population of Brazil. The employment population ratio - proportion of employed persons in the population aged 15 years and over - increased from 61.2% to 61.9% between 2013 and 2014. This estimate was 51.2% for women and 73.7% for men. Persons who completed secondary education (30.1%) and who did not complete primary education (26.4%) prevailed in the employed population, while the participation of those with higher education grew from 13.9% to 14.3%.
Proportion of employees falls, self-employed workers rises
Concerning the insertion in the labor market, the proportion of employees (60.5 million) dropped 1.0 percentage points, changing from 62.3% in 2013 to 61.3% in 2014, whereas the self-employed workers (21.1 million) increased from 20.7% to 21.4%. The number of domestic workers (6.4 million) reduced from 6.7% to 6.5% and the number of employers (3.7 million) was stable at 3.8%, It should be highlighted that, in terms of contingent, both employees and domestic workers expanded by 1.3% (765 thousand) and by 0.2% (16 thousand), respectively. Compared with 2013, the sharpest drop of employees was in the Southeast (from 67.7% to 66.2%).
Formal contract increases 1.0% in Brazil, reduces 220 thousand in Southeast
The contingent of employed persons with a formal contract in the non-agricultural private sector registered an increase of 1.0% or 345 thousand workers, changing from 34.7 million in 2013 to 35.1 million persons in 2014. The increase was recorded in the North (5.6%), Northeast (5.4%), Central-West (2.1%) and South (1.8%), yet dropping in the Southeast (-1.2%) and adding up to 220 thousand employed persons with a formal contract in the non-agricultural private sector. The Southeast (82.5%) and South (84.6%) were the regions that posted the highest percentages of employed persons with a formal contract, followed by the Central-West (78.0%), North (68.1%) and Northeast (66.7%).
PNAD captured an increase in the proportion of self-employed workers (from 17.8% to 19.0%) and of employers (from 78.6% to 80.5%) registered in the National Directory of Legal Entities (CNPJ) between 2013 and 2014. In the Central-West, the formalization of self-employed workers changed from 19.7% to 23.0%; in the Southeast, from 23.4% to 25.0%; and in the South, from 27.2% to 28.2%. The lowest percentages of formalization were recorded in the Northeast, though it had increased from 8.8% to 9.4%, and in the North Region, where it declined from 8.9% to 8.8%. The highest proportions of employers in enterprises registered in the CNPJ were reported in the South (89.4%) and Southeast (83.7%) Regions.
In 2014, 61.7% of the employed persons (60.8 million persons) contributed to the official social security. The expansion was 3.1% (1.8 million persons) in relation to 2013. The Southeast and South Regions hit a proportion higher than 70.0%, whereas less than half of the employed persons contributed to the official social security in the North and Northeast.
Number of employed children and teenagers increases
PNAD recorded an increase of 4.5% (143.5 thousand) in the number of employed children and teenagers aged between 5 and 17 years, adding up to 3.3 million (8.1% of this age bracket) under this condition in 2014 (they were 3.2 million in 2013, the equivalent of 7.5% of the total). Among them, 16.6% (553.6 thousand) were aged between 5 and 13 years (child labor). This proportion increased to 27.5% and 22.4% in the North and Northeast Regions, respectively.
The employed population between 5 and 13 years of age changed from 506 thousand in 2013 to 554 thousand in 2014 (more 9.3%) and, like in 2013, concentrated on the agricultural activity (62.1% of the employed persons).
The employment population ratio of persons between 5 and 17 years of age rose from 7.5% in 2013 to 8.1% in 2014, an increase followed by every Major Region. The North Region posted the highest increase (from 8.2% to 9.2%), while the Southeast posted the lowest one (from 6.2% to 6.6%).
Earnings: earnings from all jobs stays at R$ 1,774
The average real monthly earnings from all jobs of employed persons aged 15 years and over with earnings in 2014 was estimated at R$ 1,774, 0.8%% higher than that in 2013 (R$ 1,760). In relation to 2013, increases were reported in the Southeast (2.5%; from R$ 1,987 to R$ 2,037), South (1.4%; from R$ 1,928 to R$ 1,955) and North (1.1%; from R$ 1,409 to R$ 1,424), while the Northeast (-2.6%; from R$ 1,210 to 1,178) and Central-West (-2,.1%; from R$ 2,123 to R$ 2,078) reported losses.
The average earnings for those belonging to the group of the 10% lower monthly earnings from all jobs rose 4.1% between 2013 and 2014, staying at R$ 256. On the other hand, the average earnings for those 10% higher earnings fell 0.4% in this period, staying at R$ 7,154. As a result, persons with lower earnings earned 3.6% of the value obtained by persons with higher earnings in 2014. This relation was lower in 2013: 3.4%.
The Gini index of the distribution of the real monthly earnings from all jobs remained in a downward trend since 2004, changing from 0.495 in 2013 to 0.490 in 2014. The Northeast Region posted the highest level of inequality (0.501) and the South, the lowest (0.442). The Gini index measures the level of concentration of income, ranging from zero (perfect equality) to one (maximum inequality).
Earnings of domestic workers increase 1.4% between 2013 and 2014
Domestic employees and workers earned, on average, R$ 1,603 in 2014, about 1.4% more than the average in the previous year (R$ 1,581). Domestic workers with a formal contract had their earnings increased by 2.8% (from R$ 928 to R$ 954) and domestic workers without a formal contract, by 4.4% (from R$ 571 to R$ 596). The earnings of workers with a formal contract rose 1.3% (from R$ 1,662 to R$ 1,683), whereas the military and statutory servants earnings increased 3.3% (from R$ 2,858 to R$ 2,951). For the self-employed workers, the increase was 1.2% (from R$ 1,468 to R$ 1,485). The category of other workers without a formal contract was the only to register a reduction in the average real earnings from main job, changing from R$ 1,130 to R$ 1.119 (-1.0%).
The proportion between earnings from labor of women and men changed from 73.5% in 2013 to 74.5% in 2014. On average, men earned R$ 1,987 and women, R$ 1,480 in 2014. Another way of registering the different earnings by sex was through the analysis of the proportion of persons earning up to one minimum wage in 2014: 21.5% of the employed men against 30.6% of the employed women. Moreover, proportionally more women were employed without earnings or were earning only benefits (9.8%) than men (5.0%).
Earnings from all sources fall in Northeast and Central-West
In 2014, the average real monthly earnings from all sources of persons aged 15 years and over with earnings was R$ 1,679, 0.5% above that estimated in 2013 (R$ 1,670). Earnings also increased in the Southeast (1.5%), South (1.5%) and North (0.7%) Regions. Conversely, it dropped in the Northeast (-1.8%) and Central-West (-1.0%) Regions. Nonetheless, the highest reductions in the inequality of the distribution of earnings from all sources, measured by the Gini index, were reported in the Northeast (-3.7%, changing from 0.509 to 0.490) and Central-West (-2.2%, from 0.519 to 0.507). In this period, the inequality was not reduced in the Southeast only (0.3%, from 0.483 to 0.485). For Brazil, on average, the Gini index from all sources fell from 0.501 to 0.497, pointing to descending values since 2004.
Per capita household earnings grows 2.4% between 2013 and 2014
Between 2013 and 2014, the growth of the per capita average real monthly earnings in Brazil was 2.4% (from R$ 1,217 to R$ 1,246). While the households belonging to those 10% with lower per capita household income reported a real increase of 6.2% (from R$ 146 to R$ 155), the households belonging to those 10% with higher income reported just an increase of 2.1% (from R$ 5,076 to R$ 5,183). As a result, those 10% with higher earnings, which earned in 2013 34.8 times more than those 10% with lower earnings, had this proportion reduced to 33.4 times, pointing to a drop in the inequality of the distribution of the per capita household earnings.
Considering the 67.1 million households with earnings, the average real monthly household earnings changed from R$ 3,126 to R$ 3,133, an increase of 0.2%. The Central-West Region recorded the highest household earnings (R$ 3,746), and the Northeast Region, the lowest (R$ 2,091). The Gini index of these earnings changed from 0.497 in 2013 to 0.494 in 2014.
Technology: number of persons accessing the Internet through computers grows 11.4% in a year
About 95.4 million persons aged 10 years and over accessed the Internet through computers in Brazil in the reference period of PNAD (September 28, 2013 to September 27, 2014), an increase of 11.4% - or 9.8 million users - in relation to 2013. For the first time ever, the proportion of Internet users surpassed half of the resident population, changing from 49.4% in 2013 to 54.4% in 2014. The contingent of Internet users increased in every Major Region: 19.3% in the North, 14.6% in the Northeast, 9.5% in the Southeast, 10.0% in the South and 12.0% in the Central-West.
The ownership of mobile telephones for personal use increased 4.9% in 2014 (more 6.4 million persons), adding up to 136.6 million persons with 10 years of age and over owning such device. The proportion of these persons, which was 75.2% in 2013, changed to 77.9% of the total.
Housing and durable goods: privately-owned housing units drop, rented rise
In 2013, the number of permanent private housing units was estimated at 67.0 million, an increase of 2.9% (1.9 million housing units) in relation to the previous year. Considering the occupation status in 2014, 73.7% were privately-owned, 18.5% were rented and 7.4%, yielded. A drop of 0.6 percentage points in the number of privately-owned housing units and an increase of 0.6 percentage points in the number of rented housing units were registered in relation to 2013.
As to the ownership of durable goods, the number of housing units with washing machines recorded the highest growth between 2013 and 2014 (5.1%), changing from 57.5% to 58.7% of the housing units. The highest reduction was reported in the number of housing units with DVD players (-2.9%), which changed from 72.1% to 68.0% of the housing units. At least one resident had a car for personal use in 30.4 million housing units, an increase of 6.7%. In percentage terms, the proportion changed from 43.7% in 2013 to 45.3% in 2014. Residents had a motorcycle in 14.2 million housing units, representing an increase of 6.4% and reaching 21.2% of the housing units (in 2013, they were 20.5%).
The ownership of computers hit 32.5 million housing units, 28.2 million of them accessing the Internet, representing an increase of 2.2% over the previous year. In proportional terms, both the percentage of housing units with computers (from 48.9% to 48.5%) and the percentage of computers accessing the Internet dropped (from 42.4% to 42.1%).
The proportion of housing units with any kind of telephone was 93.5% (62.7 million), 37.8 million of them (56.3%) with mobile telephones only. In relation to 2013, the proportion of housing units having mobile telephones only grew 2.3 percentage points (it was 54%), more than the proportion of housing units with any kind of telephone, which increased 0.9 percentage points (it was 92.5%).
Percentage of housing units connected with sewage collection networks rises in the North
The proportion of housing units provided with services of a sewage collection network changed from 63.4%, in 2013 to 63.5% in 2014 (more 1.2 million housing units), adding up to 42.6 million housing units. Although registering the lowest proportion among the Major Regions, the North recorded the highest growth in this period, changing from 19.3% to 21.2%; the Central-West posted a negative change, from 48.1% to 46.5%. The housing units in the Southeast and South Regions remained with the highest services: 61.9% and 87.7%, respectively. This proportion reached 41.1% in the Northeast. Among the other services, the number of housing units supplied by a general network of water supply (more 1.9 million, with the percentage of housing units increasing from 85.0% to 85.4%), waste collection (more 2.0 million, increasing from 89.4% to 89.8%) and electricity (more 1.9 million, changing from 99.6% to 99.7%) increased between 2013 and 2014.
Harmonized indicators: real earnings from labor grows 28.8% between 2001 and 2014
The harmonized indicators of PNAD made comparisons in the period between 2001 and 2014. To do that, the results were calculated taking into account the geographic coverage of PNAD up to 2003, when the survey did not encompass the rural areas of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará and Amapá.
In 2001, the unemployment rate was 9.4%. The evolution of the unemployment rate tended to drop, with some highs, hitting its lowest level in 2012 (6.2%) and changing to 6.9% in 2014. The highest rate was registered in 2003 (9.7%).
Concerning the groups of activities, the distribution of the employed population showed a reduction in the participation of employed persons in the agricultural activity since 2001 (from 20.0% to 13.4% in 2014), dropping sharper from 2005 onwards. The activity of trade and repair recorded a rise of 1.4 percentage points in this period (from 17.0% to 18.4%) and the participation of employed persons in the manufacturing industry changed from 13.8% to 12.4%.
In the 2001-2014 period, the evolution of the average real monthly earnings from labor showed different behaviors: an average annual loss between 2001 and 2004 and real annual gains between 2005 and 2014. Between 2001 and 2004, the earnings changed from R$ 1,386 to R$ 1,246, rising to R$ 1,785 in 2014. The growth was 28.8% between 2001 and 2014.
The illiteracy rate of persons aged 15 years and over has been decreasing over the last years in Brazil. A reduction of 4.3 percentage points (from 12.4% to 8.1%) was registered between 2001 and 2014, corresponding to a reduction of 2.5 million illiterate persons.